“TheCeļotājs”
"Latvia" Former Soviet Union Military Bases
 
Appendix XXX
 
Council of People’s Commissars
 
until 1946, the highest executive and administrative organ of state power in the USSR, the Union republics, and the autonomous republics.
 
The first Council of People’s Commissars, headed by V. I. Lenin, was established at the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets. Under the Constitution of the RSFSR of 1918, it was named the Council of People’s Commissars of the RSFSR. In July 1923, after the formation of the USSR, the first Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR was established, with V. I. Lenin as chairman. Under the Constitution of the USSR of 1924, the Council of People’s  Commissars of the USSR was established by decree of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR, and those of the Union republics and autonomous republics by the central executive committees of corresponding republics. Under the Constitution of the USSR of 1936, the councils of people’s commissars of the USSR, the Union republics, and the autonomous republics were established by the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and by the supreme soviets of the republics, respectively.
 
The Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR had within its competence the coordination and guidance of the work of people’s commissariats on the all-Union and Union republic levels; the implementation of measures to meet the national economic plan, manage the state budget, strengthen the credit and monetary system, and maintain public order; and the general direction of foreign relations.
 
In March 1946 the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR was reorganized as the Council of Ministers of the USSR, and the councils of people’s commissars in the Union republics and autonomous republics were correspondingly reorganized as the councils of ministers in those republics.
 
The Council of People's Commissars, Russian: "Совет народных коммиссаров" or "Совнарком", translit. Soviet "narodnykh kommissarov" or "Sovnarkom", also as generic "SNK", was a government institution formed shortly after the October Revolution in 1917. Created in the Russian Republic the council laid foundations in restructuring the country to form the Soviet Union. It evolved to become the highest government authority of executive power under the Soviet system in states which came under the control of Bolsheviks. 
 
    
     A Sovnarkom session between December 1917 and January 1918, with [Vladimir Lenin] - seated under lamp and [Joseph Stalin] standing in the center
 
Leon Trotsky devised the names commissar and council to avoid the more "bourgeois" terms minister and cabinet. The 1918 Constitution of the RSFSR formalized the role of the Sovnarkom of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic "RSFSR": it was to be responsible to the Congress of Soviets for the "general administration of the affairs of the state." The constitution enabled the Sovnarkom to issue decrees carrying the full force of law when the Congress was not in session. The Congress then routinely approved these decrees at its next session.
 
When the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was established in December 1922, the USSR Sovnarkom was modeled on the RSFSR Sovnarkom. It was transformed in 1946 into the Council of Ministers. 
 
Original People's Commissars
 
The first council elected by the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets was composed as follows:
 
    
 
 
All-Union Sovnarkom
 
Upon the creation of the USSR in 1922, the Union's government was modeled after the first Sovnarkom. The Soviet republics retained their own governments which dealt with domestic matters.
 
Sovmin
 
In 1946, the Sovnarkoms were transformed into the Council of Ministers "Sovmin" at both all-Union and Union Republic level. 
 
 
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Revised: 02/08/2013 – 04:59:51