“TheCeļotājs”
"Latvia" Former Soviet Union Military Bases
 
Bārta I Soviet Union Military Missiles –
Missiles that could have been found at Bārta I Soviet Union Military Missile Base
Lat: N56.41506, Lon: E021.23507
Paplaka, Bārta parish
Meža Gurklāvi, Ķīburi, Latvia,
 
“R-5 and R-5M” [NATO] SS-3 SHYSTER
Soviet “R-12” [NATO] SS-4 SANDAL
Soviet Mobile Rockets the “TR-1 ” [NATO] SS-12
TR-1
[NATO] SS-12 SCALEBOARD
[NATO] SS-12M SCALEBOARD B
[NATO] SS-22
 
The two R-5 [NATO] SS-3 Surface Launch Pad Complexes outside Paplaka in Bārta parish, where Bārta 1 and Bārta 2 denominated the area. Each complex has two launch pads.
 
The "R-5 and R-5M" [NATO] designation SS-3 SHYSTER was the first nuclear missile to be deployed by the Soviets. It could deliver approximately 1,435kg payload in a detachable reentry vehicle to a range of 1,200 kilometer.
 
It was the first rocket to be fully designed and produced at the Dnepropetrovsk Ukraine facility, and was the last extension of the German V2 "A4" technology.
 
It was first deployed in 1956 and was retired in 1967. The SS-3 did not see extensive deployment “only 48 missiles were deployed”, since it was superseded by the more advanced "R-12" [NATO] designation SS-4.
 
Soviet Mobile Rockets the "TR-1 Temp" [NATO] designation SS-12 was a solid-fuel, road mobile missile with a range of approximately 900 kilometer “latest model”, first deployed in the mid 60s. When stationed in Paplaka, it would be able to reach only the eastern part of “then” West Germany, so I suppose that the Soviets concluded that this was more of a front-line missile.
 
R-5 and R-5M [NATO] SS-3 SHYSTER 
 
                       
 
The R-5M missile the [NATO] designation "SS-3 Shyster", the first Soviet missile with a nuclear delivery capacity, was a single-stage, medium-range, liquid propellant, road-transportable, ballistic missile. With a maximum range of 1200 km sufficient enough to reach strategic targets in Europe it was also considered to be the first Soviet strategic missile.
 
The missile R-5M was based on the R-5 missile developed by S.P. Korolev from the Department of the Research Institute of the Special Design Bureau, “OKB-NII” [See Appendix I] in the early 50s. This predecessor was a single-stage missile with a separable reentry vehicle. According to Western assessments, the initial guidance system for the SS-3 was radio-inertial, which was retrofitted with an all-inertial system as more reliable components became available. The R-5M missile differed from its predecessor R-5 in that to increase its reliability an auto-stabilizing command structure was installed. With a larger payload "1300 against 1000kg" and dry weight "4390 against 4030kg", the launching weight of the R-5M was more than twice that of the R-1 "28,610 against 13,430kg". The enhanced design and efficiency in combination with an increase of the specific engine thrust from 206 to 219 seconds allowed an increase in the maximum range almost five-fold relative to the R-1. To maintain an acceptable target accuracy at this increased range, the R-5 missile used a combined guidance/control system with autonomous inertial control plus lateral radio-correction. In-flight control of the missile was maintained with four aerodynamic fins located on the aft bay, and four jet vanes located on the perimeter of the single combustion chamber of the engine. The accuracy of the R-5 was 1.5km downrange and 1.25km cross-range from the aim point, and exceeded substantially the accuracy of the R-1 and R-2 missiles.
 
On 10 April 1954 the Soviet Government approved the development of the R-5M. The flight tests of the R-5M were conducted at Kapustin Yar from January 1955 through February 1956. The flight test of the R-5M on 02 February 1956 represented the first full scale testing of a nuclear missile, during which a nuclear warhead with a yield of 300 KT was successfully detonated. The R&D flight test program was assessed by Western intelligence to have begun in 1955, with initial operational capability reached in late 1956. 
 
After reaching its IOC the R-5M missile received the "GRAU Index Number 8K51" [See Appendix II] and was introduced into the Strategic Rocket Forces on 02 June1956. Between 1956 and 1957 a total of 48 missiles were deployed, primarily at sites close to the western borders of the Soviet Union. A minimum operational SS-3 field site required only a large pre-surveyed clearing with soil stabilization or possibly a poured or prefabricated concrete apron. The
SS-3 is launched from the vertical position. Reaction time is approximately five hours from the normal readiness condition. The allowable hold time in the most ready prelaunch condition "reaction time equal 15 minutes" is about one hour. In 1959 they were put on alert for the first time, and it remained in service until 1967. No further deployment was carried out due to the development of the more effective R-12 missile that subsequently replaced the R-5M Missile.
 
SS-3 SHYSTER "R-5 and R-5M" Specifications
     
    
Soviet R-12 [NATO] SS-4 SANDAL 
 
              
 
             
 
The R-12 was the first Soviet strategic missile using storable propellants and a completely autonomous inertial guidance system. With its capability to deliver a megaton-class nuclear warhead the rocket provided a capability to attack strategic targets at medium ranges. This system constituted the bulk of the Soviet offensive missile threat to Western Europe. It was deployed at both soft launch pads and hard silos.
 
The Sandal is a single-stage rocket with a separable single reentry vehicle. In the integrated fuel tanks the oxidizer was put ahead of the fuel tank, separated by an intermediate plate. During flight this allowed the oxidizer from the lower unit to be spent first thus improving in-flight stabilization. The propulsion system consists of four liquid propellant rocket motors with a common turbo-pump unit. The flight control was carried out with the help of four carbon jet vanes, located in the nozzles of the rocket motors. The autonomous guidance and control system used center of mass normal and lateral stabilization devices, a velocity control system and an computer-assisted automatic range control system.
 
Its development was accepted on 13 August 1955 by the Ministerial Council and carried out by “Yangel's OKB-586”[See Appendix I]. The first tests were conducted at the test site in Kapustin Yar from 22 June 1957 through December of 1958. The R-12 missile was introduced into the inventory on 04 March 1959 according to Russian sources, though Western intelligence believed that an initial operational capability was reached in late 1958.
 
Efforts to develop a railway based version of the R-12 missile were suspended. 
 
              
 
              
 
The R-12 missile was surface-launched. However in September 1959 a series of experimental silo launches was conducted and subsequently in May 1960 the development of a new R-12 missile designated as R-12 U was begun. The R-12U was designed to be used with both soft surface launchers and hardened silos. The silo-launch complex of the R-12U missile comprised four launchers and was designated as "Dvina." The testing phase of the missile and the launch complex lasted from December 1961 through December, 1963.
 
The first public display of this system was in November 1960, and they were deployed to Cuba in the fall of 1962. 
 
The first five regiments with surface-based R-12 missiles were put on alert on 15-16 May 1960, while the first regiment of silo-based missiles was placed on alert on 01 January 1963. Reaction time was assessed by the West at one to three hours in the normal soft site readiness condition, and five to fifteen minutes in the normal hard site readiness condition. The allowable hold time in a highly alert condition “reaction time equals three to five minutes” is long--many hours for soft sites, and days for hard sites.
 
The R-12 and R-12U missiles reached their maximum operational launcher inventory of 608 in 1964-1966. Some soft-site phase-out began in 1968, with some hard-site phase-out beginning in 1972. In 1978 their phase out and replacement with mobile ground-launched SS-20 "Pioneer" missiles began.
 
The Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Nuclear Forces [INF] Treaty was signed on 08 December 1987 and entered into force on 01 June 1988. The fundamental purpose of the INF Treaty was to eliminate and ban US and former USSR [FSU] ground-launched ballistic and cruise missiles, as well as associated support equipment, with ranges between 500 and 5500 kilometers. SS-4 and SS-5 missiles and components were eliminated at Lesnaya. The last of 149 Soviet SS-4 missiles was eliminated at the Lesnaya Missile Elimination Facility on 22 May 1990.
 
    
 
      
Soviet Mobile Rockets the "TR-1" [NATO] SS-12 Scaleboard  
TR-1
SS-12 SCALEBOARD
SS-12M SCALEBOARD B
SS-22 
                   
 
              
 
The SS-12 SCALEBOARD uses the same MAZ-543 "8x8" chassis as the SCUD-B. The primary recognition difference is the environmental protective container that completely encloses the SCALEBOARD missile. The missile is a liquid-fuel, single-stage system similar to the SCUD, but with greater range "900km", accuracy, and size of warhead. Like the SCUD, the SCALEBOARD is designed to be fired from a pre-sited position, then moved to another prearranged position. The MAZ-543 has centralized tire pressure control.
 
The SCALEBOARD is a front and theater-level weapon system that gives the Soviet commander a nuclear capability. The SCALEBOARD appeared deployed only with Soviet forces. The mid-range missile can be stationed in the western part of the USSR and still be able to hit important targets in Central Europe.
 
The SS-12 SCALEBOARD, in service since the mid-1960s, was replaced beginning in 1979 with a new missile that had the same range "900km" with improved accuracy. Initially considered to be a new missile, designated the SS-22, the SS-12M SCALEBOARD B [also known as the SS-12B and the SS-12 mod 2] was subsequently assessed as an improved version of the earlier Scaleboard. By the early 1980s the Soviets were replacing older shorter-range Scaleboard
missiles with SS-22s, and were developing the new SS-23 as follow-on to the Scud missiles. The SS-22 missile had the range to cover a substantial portion of [NATO] Europe even from its deployment areas within the Soviet  Union.
 
The Intermediate-Range and Shorter-Range Nuclear Forces [INF] Treaty was signed on 08 December 1987 and entered into force on 01 June 1988. The fundamental purpose of the INF Treaty was to eliminate and ban US and former USSR "FSU" ground-launched ballistic and cruise missiles, as well as associated support equipment, with ranges between 500 and 5500 kilometers. SS-12 and SS-23 transporter-erector-launcher "TEL" vehicles were eliminated at Stan'kovo. The first Soviet SS-12 missile was eliminated at the Saryozek Missile Elimination Facility on 01 August l988. The last of 718 Soviet SS-12 missiles was eliminated at the Saryozek Missile Elimination Facility on 25 July 1989. 
 
In February 1997 a top Cuban military defector, Alvaro Prendez, alleged that Cuba was developing biological weapons were to be delivered by five Soviet-made SS-22 missiles that were deployed near the central city of Santa Clara.  Prendez and other defectors had heard rumors that the missiles were shipped from Russia to Cuba as late as 1991. Cuba is not known to have any SS-22 missiles, and these claims appear unfounded.
 
 
     
 
 
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Revised: 01/27/2013 – 11:32:53