“TheCeļotājs”
"Latvia" Former Soviet Union Military Bases
 
Bārta II Soviet Union Military Missiles –
Missiles that could have been found at Bārta II Soviet Union Military Missile Base
Lat: N56.38164, Lon: E021.28883
Paplaka, Bārta parish
Meža Gurklāvi, Ķīburi, Latvia, 
 
Medium-Range Ballistic Missile R-5M "GRAU 8К51" [NATO] SS-3 "Shyster"
R-5 Pobeda "Victory"
R-5M [NATO] Designation SS-3 "Shyster"
R-5 [NATO] Designation SS-3
R-12 [NATO] Designation SS-4
Medium-Range Ballistic Missile
OTR - 22 "Temp-S" [NATO] Designation SS-22 "Scaleboard"
The Regiment in Paplaka consisted of two divisions, located a few kilometers from Bārta and was armed with rocket R-5M or GRAU Index Number "8K51m" [See Appendix II] "SS-3". It was one of the first "RVSN Regiments" [See
Appendix III
] and it lasted about a year. Then, in 1966, it was attempted to reconstitute the base to the mobile TEMP-S, but this is a short-range missile “approximately 1,000km” and it was subsequently transferred to the PB Army. The Construction stopped, but the TEMP-S hangars can still be seen. The facility was taken over by the navy, who used the facilities available as a radio communications center, before the Soviet’s withdrew from Latvia.
 
Soviet Rocket R-5M 
 
                        
 
Rocket R-5M became the first domestic strategic rocket carrying a nuclear charge that gave start to the development of the Soviet nuclear-rocket protection shield.
 
The R-5M rocket is the successful successor of the German long-range rocket A-4. The rocket was used also as sounding rockets "W5-A", "W5-W" and "Vertikal".
 
The R-5 missile started at "Korolev's OKB-1". [See Appendix I] Active phase of the R-5 development fell on 1952. A single-stage missile was designed as a 20-meter tall cylinder instead of cigar-like shape common for previous A-4-derived vehicles. For the first time, both fuel and oxidizer tanks welded of light aluminum and magnesium alloys were made as monologue structures yielding great weight savings. The riveting was used for the assembly of the tail section made of Dural and aluminum.
 
The tail section also carried short triangular fins with wind rudders instead of bulky A-4-derived stabilizers of the R-1 and 2. Still, resemblance to the A-4 has been retained in the propulsion unit. 
 
The R-5M was powered by a single A-4-derived engine, developed in "OKB-456 in Khimki" ". [See Appendix I] under designation "RD-103M" [See Appendix IV]. It used a 92-percent mix of alcohol with water as a fuel and liquid oxygen as an oxidizer and yielded trust of 43.85 tons. Comparing with the A-4 engine, "RD-103M" featured a number of improvements including better cooling system for the combustion chamber and introduction of automated trust control. Solid catalizator was used for decay of hydrogen peroxide in the gas generator, which provided hot gas to drive the turbo-pump on the propellant line. The centrifugal pump was used to drive the hydrogen peroxide into the gas generator. Elastic fuel lines were also used for the first time.
 
The R-5M flight control system included aerodynamic and gas rudders, which prevented the rocket from rolling about its main axis. After the engine cutoff, the stabilization would be still maintained using the oxygen gas which during the active flight served for pressurization of the oxidizer tank. To achieve this, the pressurization gas was directed into the system of nozzles placed in the conical section, connecting the warhead with the rest of the rocket body. 
 
Weighing 28,570kg at launch, the R-5M was able to reach a 1,200km distance becoming first "strategic" missile in the Soviet arsenal.
 
The R-5M was exported as a weapon to China and was renamed the DF-2 and DF-2A. 
 
Development of a nuclear warhead that could be delivered by the missile began in 1964. In late 1966, a series of flight tests using the DF-2 missile integrated with a dummy warhead were carried out to test the reliability of the warhead design. On 27 October 1966, a specially modified Dongfeng 2A missile carrying a nuclear warhead successfully detonated in the Lop Nor nuclear test site.
 
Soviet Rocket R-5M Specifications
 
    
Medium-Range Ballistic Missile Soviet R-5, R-5M Pobeda "GRAU 8K51" [NATO] SS-3 Shyster
 
R-5 Pobeda
 
The R-5 Pobeda "Victory" was a theatre ballistic missile developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War. The R-5M version was assigned the [NATO] reporting name SS-3 Shyster and carried the "GRAU Index 8K51"
 
The R-5 was originally a development of OKB-1 as a single-stage missile with a detachable warhead reentry vehicle. The R-5M was a nuclear armed missile – the first nuclear missile to be deployed by the Soviet Union, with greater payload and weight but better reliability than its predecessor. The R-5M gave the Soviet Union the ability to target many strategic targets in Europe. The R-5M entered service on 21 May 1956 "retired in 1967".
 
R-5 was additionally an oft-reported alternate designation for the Kaliningrad K-5 air-to-air missile.
 
R-5 Pobeda Specification: 
Propellant liquid
Range 1200km
Period of storage after fueling 1 hour
Time of preparation 2,5 hours
R-5 [NATO] SS-3
 
The SS-3 was a medium-range, surface-based, liquid propellant ballistic missile. It was the first Russian missile to achieve both nuclear capability and the intermediate-range classification. Though the initial model was simply a technological improvement upon the SS-2, a second version developed three years later was designed to carry a nuclear warhead. 
 
The original SS-3 had a range of 800 km “497 miles”, but a change in the fuel composition later increased it to 1200km "746 miles". The greatly improved range made it the first truly strategic missile, with a range capable of striking
strategic targets in Europe. The first version of the SS-3 had a payload of 1,500kg while a second had 1,350kg with a 30kT nuclear warhead. The accuracy of the missile was limited to 2000 m CEP, an improvement once the increased range was factored in "longer ranges typically mean lower accuracy". The development of a nuclear warhead compensated for the limited accuracy of the weapon and resulted in an effective weapon.
 
The missile was 20.8m long and 1.65m in diameter. Its launch weight was 28,000kg and 29,500kg for the conventional and the nuclear versions respectively. Both versions used single-stage liquid propellant engines. The guidance system was radio-command, by which a ground commander monitored and controlled the status of the missile from a ground station.
 
The SS-3 began as a spin-off of a 1947 project attempting to develop a single-stage missile with a range of 3,000km "1,864 miles", which was found to be technically possible but impractical. A reduced range of 1,200km "746 miles" was
accepted and flight tests began in 1953. The first full-scale Soviet test of a ballistic missile with a nuclear warhead took place in 1956. The SS-3s were in service in the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1959 prior to being replaced by the SS-4. The original version of the SS-3 entered service in 1953, with a deployment limited to 28 missiles. The nuclear version was introduced in 1956 and served until 1959.
 
R-5 [NATO] SS-3 Shyster Specifications
 
    
 
R-12 [NATO] SS-4 
 
                   
 
The SS-4 was a medium-range, surface-based, liquid-propellant ballistic missile. It was the standard Soviet MRBM until 1977. Originally radio-command guided like its predecessors, inertial guidance was fully incorporated by 1962 making the SS-4 the first strategic system to use an autonomous guidance system, though it maintained radio control for trajectory correction. It was also the first Russian strategic system to use storable fuels, decreasing the launch readiness time and increasing the service life. As the system required 20 men and 12 tractor vehicles to erect and launch, it was essentially a fixed-based system. 
 
The high yield nuclear warhead gave the SS-4 the ability to destroy soft-targets such as cities or military bases, but not bunkers or missile silos. Its range was sufficient to target strategic sites in Europe, such as several major cities. To increase the survivability of the system against a US strike, a silo-based version was developed several years later. It was an effective city-killer, but otherwise impractical.
 
The SS-4 had a range of 2,000km "1,243 miles" and a single warhead payload of 1,630kg, containing a nuclear warhead of either 1-1.3 MT or 2-2.3 MT yield. Its accuracy was limited to 2,400 m CEP. It had a launch weight of 41,000kg. The missile used a single-stage liquid propellant engine and was 18.4m long with a width of 1.65m. A silo-based version was deployed 5 years later with an increased launch weight of 42,200kg.
 
Development of the original SS-4 began in 1955, with development of the silo version beginning in 1960. The first flight tests took place in 1957 with the first silo tests starting in 1960. The SS-4 missiles were deployed in the Soviet
Union from 1959 until 1987, with the silo-based design being deployed from 1964 to 1987. A peak deployment was reported as 608 launchers from 1965 to 1966. The missile system was gradually replaced by the SS-20 in the final ten years of its deployment. Under the terms of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces "INF" Treaty all remaining SS-4s were reported withdrawn and destroyed by May 1991.
 
As one of the missiles provided by the Soviet Union to Cuba, the SS-4 became famous during the Cuban Missile Crisis. As an example of Russian missile proliferation, Israeli intelligence reported in 1997 that SS-4 technology had been provided to Iran. The Russian Federation denies this.
 
R-12 [NATO] SS-4 Sandal Specifications
 
 
Soviet Mobile TEMP-S
 
Medium-Range Ballistic Missile OTR - 22 "Temp-S" [NATO] SS-22 "Scaleboard" 
 
              
 
                   
 
The development of the solid fuel medium-range ballistic missile began in the Soviet  Union in 1959. This complex received indexation as 9K71 "Temp" "tempo". All ground launching equipment for the "Temp" was produced by Nr. 221 "Barikadi" plant, and chassis was built in Minsk vehicle plant. Ballistic missile had a preparation for launch time in 20 - 30 minutes. Missile carried nuclear "300ktons", chemical, high-explosion warheads. It's test launches "began in 1961. There were made 6 test launches. Analyzing their results came, that missile has a maximum range of fire in 425 kilometers instead of planned 500 - 600. Furthermore missile had under flight in 40 kilometers because of some technical reasons. In 1962 it was improved to reach a range of fire in at least 460 kilometers. The second test stage began in December 1962. However in 1963 there was signed order to stop all tests and cancel the project due to the lag in tests plans and low tactical-technical characteristics. "Temp's" design wasn't optimal as it has a launch weight in 10.5 tones, what was quiet a lot for such a class missile. However development of the "Temp" led to projecting and developing some new technologies, used with later built missiles. 
 
              
 
              
 
Development of a new "Temp-S" medium-range ballistic missile began in 1962. NATO designated it as SS-22 "Scaleboard" however later it's improved version was re-designated as SS-12M "Scaleboard-B" "a non-standard designation:, and the "Temp-S" - as the SS-12 respectively. Temp's initial project was accepted in December 1962. Missile was fitted with nuclear, chemical and other warheads, developed for the "Temp" canceled missile project. The "Temp-S" featured hydro-stabilized inertial guidance system "its predecessor "Temp" missile lacked such system". The 9P120 launching vehicle was developed by "Barikadi" plant, mounted on the MAZ-543A High-Mobility 8 x 8 Wheeled
Chassis [See Appendix XVIII] manufactured at Minsk, Republic of Belarus vehicle plant. This vehicle was completed with the D12A-525A diesel engine, and carried 520 liters of fuel. It featured very high mobility performances of it's four axles and a gap between the second and third axle. This feature allowed vehicle to cross wide trenches and other obstacles. Missile was carried in a closed container.
 
The first launch of the OTR-22 "Temp-S" was made on the 14th March 1964. Missile flew a range in 580 kilometers. The 5th test launch was made on 18th July 1964. The missile flew a range in 850 kilometers with a deflection from target in 3.44 kilometers left and overflew it in 3.55 kilometers. Such details seemed to be acceptable for the Soviet Union and in 1965 the "Temp-S" complex entered service with the Soviet army. It is worth adding that two of the five test launches were emergency. And the reasons of its adoption was that the Soviet Union needed missile to reach [NATO] bases in Europe developed in a very short terms. 
 
Further development of the "Temp-S" became the "Temp-2S" mobile missile complex, mounted on the chassis of the MAZ3547A wheeled vehicle. It is also known as the SS-16 "Sinner".
 
In November 1987 presidents of the Soviet Union and the United States of America signed an agreement due to limitation of short- and medium-range ballistic missiles elimination "INF Treaty". This treaty involved missiles with a range
of fire in 500 - 5500 kilometers. Executing its part of the agreement in 1990 the Soviet Union destroyed all OTR-22 "Temp-S" medium range ballistic missiles and launching vehicles.
 
Soviet Missile OTR - 22 "Temp-S" [NATO] SS-22 "Scaleboard" Specifications
 
    
 
Automobiles MAZ-MAH
Minsk Republic of Belarus 
 
 
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Revised: 01/27/2013 – 19:50:05