“TheCeļotājs”
"Latvia" Former Soviet Union Military Bases
 
Lubyanka Building Prison
 
         
                 Original building of headquarter of the All-Russia                                                   The Lubyanka Building in modern times
                 Insurance Company, before 1917
 
The Lubyanka - Russian: "Лубя́нка; IPA: [lʊˈbʲankə]" is the popular name for the headquarters of the KGB and affiliated prison on Lubyanka Square in Moscow, Russia. It is a large Neo-Baroque building with a facade of yellow brick 
designed by Alexander V. Ivanov in 1897 and augmented by Aleksey Shchusev from 1940 to 1947.
 
The Lubyanka was originally built in 1898 as the headquarters of the All-Russia Insurance Company. It is noted for its beautiful parquet floors and pale green walls. Belying its massiveness, the edifice avoids an impression of heroic scale: isolated Palladian and Baroque details, such as the minute pediments over the corner bays and the central loggia, are lost in an endlessly-repeating palace facade where three bands of cornices emphasize the horizontal lines. A clock is centered in the uppermost-band of the facade.
 
Following the Bolshevik Revolution, the structure was seized by the government for the headquarters of the secret police, then called the Cheka. [See Appendix XXX] In Soviet Russian jokes, it was referred to as the tallest building in Moscow, since Siberia could be seen from its basement. Another joke referred to the building as "Adult's World" as compared to "Children's World," the name of the popular toy shop across the street.
 
During the Great Purge, the offices became increasingly cramped due to staff numbers. In 1940 Aleksey Shchusev was commissioned to double its size by adding another storey and engulfing backstreet buildings. Shchusev's design accentuated Neo-Renaissance detailing, but only the left part of the facade was reconstructed under his direction in the 1940s, due to the war and other hindrances. This asymmetric facade survived intact until 1983, when the symmetry was restored at the urging of Communist Party General Secretary and former KGB Director Yuri Andropov in accordance with Shchusev's plans.
 
Although the Soviet secret police changed its name many times, its headquarters remained in this building. Secret police chiefs from Lavrenty Beria to Yuri Andropov used the same office on the third floor, which looked down on the statue of Cheka founder Felix Dzerzhinsky. A prison at the ground floor of the building figures prominently in Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's classic study of the Soviet police state, The Gulag Archipelago. Famous inmates held, tortured and interrogated there include Sidney Reilly, Raoul Wallenberg, János Esterházy, Alexander Dolgun, and Walter Ciszek.
 
After the dissolution of the KGB, the Lubyanka became the headquarters of the Border Guard Service of Russia, and houses the Lubyanka prison and one directorate of the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation "FSB". In addition a museum of the KGB now called "Историко-демонстрационный зал ФСБ России", Historical-demonstration hall of the Russian "FSB" was opened to the public. 
 
              
The Solovetsky Stone in Moscow 
 
In 1990, the Solovetsky Stone was erected across from the Lubyanka to commemorate the victims of political repression.
 
The Solovetsky Stones
 
The Solovetsky Stone Lat: 55°45′32.8″N, Lon: 37°37′39.2″E / [Lat: N55.759111, Lon: E37.627556] Is a monument located in Lubyanka Square in Moscow, across from KGB headquarters. The monument consists of a large stone brought from the Solovetsky Islands, the location of Solovki prison camp, part of the Soviet Gulag system. According to the Russian NGO Memorial, the monument was erected on 30 October 1990 to commemorate a 1974 initiative by political prisoners to establish a "Day of Political Prisoners in the USSR." In 1991, the Supreme Soviet of Russia officially established 30 October as the Day of Remembrance of the Victims of Political Repressions. 
 
    
             Solovetsky Stone in Troitskaya Square, 
     Saint Petersburg, Russia. Translation of the text:
                  "To the Prisoners of the Gulag".
 
Another Solovetsky Stone was erected in the public garden on Troitskaya Square 59°57′10.13″N 30°19′32.13″E / [Lat: N59.9528139, Lon: E30.3255917] in Saint Petersburg in 2002. It was designed by Yevgeny Ukhnalyov and is officially known as the Memorial to the Victim of Political Repressions in Petrograd - Leningrad. The monument is a 10 ton granite boulder taken 50 meters from the place of mass executions of the prisoners of the Solovki Prison Camp. The rock is set on a polished granite base with inscriptions "To Prisoners of GULAG", "To Victims of Communist Terror", "To Freedom Fighters" and a line from the "Requiem" poem of Anna Akhmatova: "I wish to call all of them by name, but " "Хотелось бы всех поименно назвать" The monument was unveiled on 4 September 2002 in preparation for celebrations of 300 years of Saint Petersburg. According to Solvki Encyclopedia Ukhnalyov and the architect of the  memorial, State Duma deputy Yuly Rybakov, paid all the expenses personally including the transportation of the 10,400kg boulder from the Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea. The Saint Petersburg city administration would not help finance the memorial despite significant budget allocated to celebrate the tercentenary of the city. 
 
Lubyanka Square, Russian: "Лубянская площадь, Lubyanskaya ploshchad" in Moscow is about 900 meters "980 yards" north east of Red Square. The name is first mentioned in 1480, when Ivan III settled many Novgorodians in the area. They built the church of St Sophia, modeled after St Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod, and called the area Lubyanka after the Lubyanitsy district of their native city.
 
Lubyanka Square is best known for Aleksandr V. Ivanov's monumental building from 1897–1898. It was originally used by the insurance company Rossiya, but it is better known for later housing the headquarters of the KGB in its various incarnations and today housing that of the FSB. The square was renamed Dzerzhinsky Square for many years "1926–1990" in honor of the founder of the Soviet security service, Felix Dzerzhinsky. Yevgeny Vuchetich's monumental statue of Dzerzhinsky, nicknamed "Iron Felix" was erected in the center of the square in 1958.
 
On 30 October 1990, the Memorial organization erected a monument to the victims of the Gulag, a simple stone from Solovki. In 1991 the statue of Dzerzhinsky was removed following the failure of the coup against Mikhail Gorbachev, and the square's original name was officially restored. The Moscow Metro station Lubyanka is located under Lubyanka Square.
 
 
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Revised: 02/08/2013 – 20:05:22