“TheCeļotājs”
"Latvia" Former Soviet Union Military Bases
 
Claymore Mine
 
The Claymore is a directional anti-personnel mine used by the U.S. military and other countries military. It was named after the large Scottish sword by its inventor, Norman A. MacLeod. Unlike a conventional land mine, the Claymore is command-detonated and directional, meaning it is fired by remote-control, shooting a pattern of metal balls into the kill zone like a shotgun.
 
The Claymore fires steel balls, out to about 100m "110 yards" within a 60° arc in front of the device. It is used primarily in ambushes and as an anti-infiltration device against enemy infantry. It is also of some use against unarmored vehicles.
 
Many countries use mines like the Claymore. Examples include former Soviet Union models MON-50, MON-90, MON-100, MON-200, MRUD "Serbia", MAPED F1 "France", and Mini MS-803 "South Africa".
 
U.S. Military Models:
M18A1, MM-1 "Minimore",
 
Soviet Union Models: 
MON-50, MON-90, MON-100, MON-200,
 
Yugoslavia Model:
MRUD "Serbia", Mina Rasprskavajuća Usmerenog Dejstva
 
France Model:
MAPED F1
 
South Africa Model:
Mini MS-803
 
Chinese Model:
Type 66
 
The U.S. Military Claymore
 
M18A1 Claymore Mine 
 
           
                        The M18A1 Claymore mine with the M57 firing device and M4 electric blasting cap assembly
 
 
      
 
Description
 
The M18A1 Claymore is a directional anti-personnel mine. Unlike a conventional land mine, the Claymore is command-detonated and directional, meaning it is fired by remote-control, shooting a pattern of metal balls into the kill zone like a shotgun. 
 
The M18A1 Claymore mine has a horizontally convex green plastic case "inert training versions are blue". The shape was developed through experimentation to deliver the optimum distribution of fragments at 50m "55 yards" range. The case has the words "Front Toward Enemy" embossed on the front of the mine. A simple open sight on the top surface allows for aiming the mine. Two pairs of scissor legs attached to the bottom support the mine and allow it to be aimed vertically. On both sides of the sight are fuse wells set at 45 degrees.
 
Internally the mine contains a layer of C-4 explosive behind a matrix of about seven hundred 1⁄8-inch-diameter "3.2mm" steel balls "about as big as #4 birdshot" set into an epoxy resin.
 
When the M18A1 is detonated, the explosion drives the matrix forward, out of the mine at a velocity of 1,200m/s "3,937ft/s", at the same time breaking it into individual fragments. The steel balls are projected in a 60° fan-shaped pattern that is 6.5 feet high and 50m "55 yards" wide at a range of 50m "55 yards". The force of the explosion deforms the relatively soft steel balls into a shape similar to a .22 rim fire projectile. These fragments are moderately effective up to a range of 100m "110 yards", with a hit probability of around 10% on a prone man sized 1.3 square foot "0.12m2" target. The fragments can travel up to 250m "270 yards". The optimum effective range is 50m "55 yards", at which the optimal
balance is achieved between lethality and area coverage, with a hit probability of 30% on a man-sized target. 
 
The weapon and all its accessories are carried in an M7 bandolier. The mine is detonated as the enemy approaches the killing zone. Controlled detonation may be accomplished by use of either an electrical or non-electrical firing system. When mines are employed in the controlled role, they are treated as individual weapons and are reported in the unit fire plan. They are not reported as mines; however, the emplacing unit must ensure that the mines are removed, detonated, or turned over to a relieving unit. The M57 Firing Device "colloquially referred to as the "clacker" is included with each mine. When the mines are daisy chained together, one firing device can initiate several mines.
 
The mine can be detonated by any mechanism that activates the blasting cap. Field-expedient methods of detonating the mine by tripwire, or even by a timer, exist, but are rarely used.
 
Development
 
The development of the M18A1 mine dates back to work done during World War II. The Misznay-Schardin effect was independently discovered during World War II by Misznay, a Hungarian, and Dr. Hubert Schardin, a German. When a sheet of explosive detonates in contact with a heavy backing surface for example, "a metal plate", the resulting blast is primarily directed away from the surface in a single direction. Schardin spent some time developing the discovery as a side-attack anti-tank weapon, but development was incomplete at the end of the war. Schardin also spent time researching a "trench mine" that used a directional fragmentation effect. 
 
Norman MacLeod and Explosive Research Corporation
 
      
                         Images from the 1956 Macleod patent
 
Following the massed Chinese attacks during the Korean War, Canada and the United States began to develop projects to counter them. Canada fielded a weapon called the "Phoenix" landmine that used the Misznay-Schardin effect to project a spray of 0.25-inch "6.4mm" steel cubes towards the enemy. The cubes were embedded in five pounds of Composition B explosive. It was too large to be a practical infantry weapon and was relatively ineffective with a maximum effective range of only 20 to 30 yards "20 to 30 meters". 
 
Around 1952 Norman MacLeod at his company the Explosive Research Corporation began working on the concept of a small directional mine for use by infantry. It is not clear if Picatinny took the concept from this Canadian weapon and asked Norman MacLeod to develop it; or if he came up with the idea independently and presented it to them. MacLeod came up with a design, the T-48 that was broadly similar to the final M18A1, although it lacked a number of the design details that made the M18A1 effective. It was accepted into Army service as the M18 Claymore and approximately 10,000 were produced. It was used in small numbers in Vietnam from around 1961, but it was not until the arrival of the improved M18A1 that it became a significant weapon.
 
The M18 was 9.25-inch "235mm" long and 3.27-inch "83mm" high with a plastic case with three folding spike legs on the bottom. An electrical blasting cap for triggering the mine was inserted through a small hole in the side. Internally the mine consisted of a layer of 12-ounce "340g" of C-3 explosive "the forerunner of C-4 explosive" in front of which was laid an array of 0.25-inch "6.4mm" steel cubes. In total the mine weighed about 2.43-pound "1.10kg", and could be fitted with an optional peep sight for aiming. It lacked the later version's iconic "FRONT TOWARD ENEMY" marking. The mine was planted in the ground using its three sharp legs and was aimed in the direction of enemy approach and then fitted with an electrical blasting cap. The mine was then triggered from a safe position, preferably to the side and rear.
 
The mine was barely more than a prototype and was not considered a "reliable casualty producer" with an effective range like the Phoenix of only 90 feet "30m". 
 
MacLeod applied for a patent for the mine on 18 January 1956 and was granted it in February 1961. The patent was later the source of a civil court case between MacLeod, the Army, and Aerojet who proceeded to develop the design
further. MacLeod's case collapsed when photographs of the German Trenchmine prototype were produced as evidence of prior art. 
 
Kennedy, Throner, Bledsoe, and Kincheloe at Aerojet
 
      
The original M18 Claymore mine. Note the detonator inserted into the side
 
In 1954 Picatinny Arsenal issued a request for proposals "RFP" aimed at improving the M18 into a more effective weapon. Guy C. Throner working at Aerojet had independently come up with a design for a Claymore-like mine in the early
1950s. Seeing the RFP and working with Don Kennedy they submitted a 30 page proposal to Picatinny and were awarded a $375,000 development contract to improve the design. Picatinny criteria for the weapon were as follows
  1. It must weigh less than 3.5 pounds "1.6 kilograms"
  2. It must throw enough fragments so that at a range of 55 yards "50m" it achieves a 100 percent strike rate on a 1.3 square feet "0.12m2" target "man sized" 
  3. The fragment area must not be more than 8 feet "2.4m" high and no more than 60 degrees wide
  4. Fragments must have a velocity of 4,000 feet "1,200m" per second providing 58 foot-pounds (79 joules) of kinetic energy delivered to the target.
The requirement for kinetic energy came from the fact that 58 foot pounds is the amount of kinetic energy required to deliver a potentially lethal injury. Given the requirements of weight, and fragment density required this dictated using approximately 700 fragments, and being able to aim the mine with an accuracy of around two feet "0.6m" at the center of the target zone. The team at Aerojet were given access to all previous research into the directional mine, including the M18 and the Phoenix mine, as well as German research. Dr. John Bledsoe led the initial project. 
 
The original M18 mine fell far short of requirements. One of the first improvements was to replace the steel cubes with 7⁄32-inch "5.6mm" hardened 52100 alloy ball bearings. These performed poorly for two reasons. First, the hardened steel balls spalled into fragments when hit by the shock of the explosion; the fragments were neither aerodynamic enough nor large enough to perform effectively. Additionally the blast "leaked" between the balls, reducing their velocity.
 
A second problem to be addressed was the curvature of the mine. This was determined experimentally by Bledsoe, through a large number of test firings. Bledsoe left the project to work at the Rheem corporation, and another engineer, William Kincheloe came onto the project. 
 
Kincheloe immediately came up with the suggestion to use softer 1⁄8-inch "3.2mm" steel "gingle" balls that were used in the foundry process. The softer balls did not spall when struck by the shock from the explosive, instead they deformed into a useful aerodynamic shape similar to a .22 rim fire projectile. Using a homemade chronograph these were clocked at 3,775 feet "1,151m" per second. The second optimization was to use a poured plastic matrix to briefly contain the blast from the explosive, so that more of the blast energy was converted into projectile velocity. After a number of experiments they settled on Devcon-S steel filled epoxy to hold the balls in place. With this improvement, the velocity improved to 3,995 feet "1,218m" per second. 
 
There were still a number of technical challenges to overcome, including the development of a case that would be able to contain the corrosive C-3 explosive, and be tough enough to withstand months of field handling in wide temperature ranges. Using dyes to test various plastics for leaks, they found a suitable plastic called Durex 1661½ which could be easily molded into a case. 
 
By the spring of 1956 they had a near-final design, which was awarded a preproduction contract for 1,000 M18A1 claymores designated T-48E1 during testing.
 
The initial versions of the mine used two pairs of wire legs produced from number 9 wire. Later when production was ramped up the design was changed to flat steel scissor, folding-type legs. 
 
Early pre-production mines were triggered using a battery pack that was used with the M18, however this was undesirable for a number of reasons. Bill Kincheloe came up with the idea of using a "Tiny Tim" toggle generator used with a number of navy rockets. Originally an aluminum box was used to hold the generator. Later a Philadelphia company, Molded Plastic Insulation Company, took over the manufacture of the firing device for the first large scale production run producing a plastic device. 
 
The sighting for the device was also originally intended to be a cheap pentaprism device, that would allow the user to look down from above and see the sight picture. After finding a suitably low-cost device, it was found that fumes from either the C-3 explosive or the cement used to adhere the sight to the top of the mine corroded the plastic mirrors, rendering them unusable. In the end simple peep sights were adopted, which was later replaced by a knife blade sight.
 
Testing concluded that the mine was effective out to approximately 110 yards "100m", being capable of hitting 10% of the attacking force. At 55 yards "50m" this increased to 30%. The development project completed, the Aerojet team sent the project back to Picatinny, where it was bid out to various component suppliers. It was type standardized as the M18A1 in 1960, seeing first active service in Vietnam in spring or early summer 1966. 
 
Minor modifications were made to the mine during its service. A layer of tinfoil was added between the fragmentation matrix and the explosive. This slightly improves the fragment velocity, and protects the steel fragments from the corrosive explosive. A ferrite choke was added to prevent RF signals and lightning from triggering the mine. 
 
Arms-Tech MM-1 "Minimore",
a smaller variant conceived for Special Forces use
 
The MM-1 "Minimore" is a small-sized version of the M18A1 claymore mine, currently manufactured by Arms-Tech Ltd. of Phoenix, Arizona. The company literature refers to it either as the "MM-1 Directional Command Detonated Mine" or as the "Minimore-1 "MM-1" Miniature Field-Loadable Claymore Mine". The MM-1 occupies only one third of the volume of an M18A1. Being significantly smaller and lighter than the original, more can be carried at one time "three MM-1 in place of one single M18A1".
 
It produces a narrower arc of fragments than the claymore mine, according to the manufacturer: at 50 feet "15m" it produces a pattern 16 feet "4.9m" wide and two feet high, compared with a 50-foot "15m" wide pattern for the claymore mine at the same distance.
 
MM-1 "Minimore" Specifications
  • Length: 5 inches "125mm"
  • Width: 1.5 inches "38mm"
  • Height: 3 inches "75mm"
  • Weight: 14.5 ounces "0.4kg" not including explosive charge
Soviet Union Models: 
 
MON-50 
 
              
 
The MON-50 is a claymore shaped "rectangular, slightly concave", plastic bodied, directional type of anti-personnel mine designed and manufactured by Russia. It is designed to wound or kill by explosive fragmentation. The mine is similar to the American M18 Claymore with a few differences.
 
Design
 
It has folding scissor type legs for supporting and aiming, but it also has an attachment point on the bottom for connecting a special clamp/spike which can be attached to wood, metal etc. It has a peep sight centered on the top which is flanked by two detonator cavities. The mine contains 700g of RDX "PVV-5A" [See Appendix XXV] to propel approximately 540 or 485 fragments to a lethal range of 50 meters in a 54° arc "spread of 45 meters at 50 meter range". The fragments can be steel balls "540" or short steel rods "485" depending on the variant.
 
The MON-50 is usually command actuated using a PN manual inductor and an EDP-R electric detonator. It can also be actuated by a variety of booby trap "BT" switches including the MUV series pull; the MVE-72 electric break wire; or the VP13 seismic controller.
 
The MON 50 will usually be mounted above ground level on the surface or up in trees to give the greatest dispersion of fragments. It is waterproof and will function effectively from +50 to -50°C "it can be buried in snow as long as the pack in front of the mine doesn't exceed 10 cm, any more will greatly reduce the mine effectiveness".
 
The mine can be located visually or with metal detectors under most field conditions. Depending on its actuation method the MON-50 may be resistant to blast overpressure from explosive breaching systems like the Giant Viper and M58 MICLIC.
 
The MON-50 is also manufactured for export in Bulgaria. The MON 50 is widely used in many parts of the world. It comes in a two pouch cloth bandolier which holds all the components for securing and command actuating the mine. It may also come packed in a VKPM-2 set which contains 4 mines complete with miscellaneous fuzes, control panel and wire.
 
MON-50 Specifications
  • Country of Origin: USSR, Russia
  • Mine Action:
  • Material: Plastic Casing
  • Shape: Claymore
  • Color: Green, Grey, Olive
  • Total Weight: 2kg
  • Explosive Content: 700 g of RDX "PVV-5A" explosive
  • Length: 226mm
  • Width: 35mm
  • Height: 155mm
  • Fuse #1: Command detonated using PN manual inductor attached by demolition cable to an EDP-R electric detonator.
  • Fuse #2: "one of the following"
  • MUV Series Mechanical Pull
  • MVE-72 Electric Break wire "battery powered"
  • VP13 Seismic Controller "battery powered"
Further information and effects
 
The mine has conventional or advanced seismic influence fuzing. It is a hand laid directional fragmentation mine which is normally command actuated "always secure command wires". The MON-50 is known to be used with the VP13 seismic controller which prevents close approach for any clearance operations, or to a variety of BT fuzes.
 
On detonation the mine will normally propel lethal fragmentation to a range between 40 and 60 meters, although the actual hazard range for these types of mines can be as high as 300 meters based on US Army tests of the M18A1 "Claymore" "this is directly in front of the mine, fragmentation range and density drop off to 125 meters to the sides and rear of these mines".
 
MON-90,
 
The MON-90 is a claymore shaped, plastic bodied, directional type of anti-personnel mine designed and manufactured in Russia. It is designed to wound or kill by fragmentation. The mine is similar in appearance to the MON-50, but is approximately twice the size with a much greater depth.
 
Design
 
The MON-90 has an attachment point on the bottom for connecting a special clamp which can be attached to wood, metal etc. but it has no scissor type legs. It has a sight centered on the top which is flanked by two detonator cavities. The mine contains 6.2kg of RDX "PVV-5A" to propel approximately 2000 steel rod fragments to a lethal range of 90 meters in a 54' arc "60m wide spread at 90m range".
 
The MON-90 is usually command actuated using a PN manual inductor and an EDP-R electric detonator "ZT non-electric detonator also available". It can also be actuated by a variety of booby trap "BT" switches including:
  • MUV series pull
  • MVE-72 electric break wire
  • VP13 seismic controller.
The MON-90 is usually mounted above ground level on the surface or up in a tree to give the greatest dispersion of fragments. It is waterproof and will function effectively from temperatures of +50' to -50'C. Due to its large size the MON-90 is effective against unarmored vehicles and it may have applications as an anti-helicopter mine.
 
It can be located visually or with metal detectors under most field conditions. Depending on its actuation method the MON 90 may be resistant to blast overpressure from explosive breaching systems like the Giant Viper and M58 MICLIC.
 
MON-90 Specifications
  • Country of Origin: Russia
  • Mine Action:
  • Material: Plastic Casing
  • Shape: Claymore
  • Color: Green, Olive
  • Total Weight: 12.1kg
  • Explosive Content: 6.2kg RDX "PVV-5A" explosive
  • Operating Pressure "kg":
  • Length: 345mm
  • Width: 153mm
  • Height: 202mm
  • Fuze #1: Command detonated using PN manual inductor attached by demolition cable to a EDP-R electric detonator
  • Fuze #2:
  • MUV Series Mechanical Pull
  • MVE-72 Electric Break wire "battery powered"
  • VP13 Seismic Controller "battery powered"
Disarming "demining" Hazards
 
The MON-90 is known to be used with the VP13 seismic controller which prevents close approach for any clearance operations. If the mine is encountered with any type of electrical wires running from it, secure both ends of the wire before approaching the mine, because it could be linked to another mine or other booby trap device.
 
On detonation the mine will normally propel lethal fragmentation to a range of 90 meters. The actual hazard range for these types of mines can be as high as 300 meters based on US Army tests of the M18A1 Claymore "this is directly in front of the mine, fragmentation range and density drop off to 125 meters to the sides and rear of these mines".
 
MON-100
 
    
                                         MON-100 Landmine
 
The MON-100 is a circular, sheet metal bodied, directional type of anti-personnel mine designed and manufactured in Russia. It is designed to wound or kill by fragmentation and resembles a large bowl.
 
Design
 
The MON-100 mine body has a smooth, well finished appearance with a webbing handle mounted on the upper edge, it is usually attached to a mounting shackle by wing nuts on either side of the mine body "the shackle is connected to a spike for securing the mine to buildings, trees etc.". The concave face of the mine has a detonator cavity in its center "this is the side aimed at the target".
 
The mine contains 2kg of explosive to propel 450 steel rod fragments to a lethal range of 100 m, at maximum range the spread of the fragmentation is 9.5 m. The mine alone weighs 5kg but with the shackle and mounting spike the weight is 7.53kg. The MON 100 can be command actuated using a PN manual inductor attached by demolition cable to an EDP-R electric detonator. It can also be actuated by a variety of booby trap "BT" switches including:
  • MUV series pull
  • MVE-72 electric break wire
  • VP13 seismic controller.
The MON-100 will usually be mounted above ground level on the surface or up in trees to give the greatest dispersion of fragments. The mine can be located visually or with metal detectors under most field conditions. Depending on its actuation method the MON-100 may be resistant to blast overpressure from explosive breaching systems like the Giant Viper and M58 MICLIC. The mine is also produced for export to Poland.
 
MON-100 Specifications
 
      
  • Country of Origin: Russia
  • Mine Action:
  • Material: Sheet Metal
  • Shape: Circular
  • Color: Green, Olive
  • Total Weight: 5kg
  • Explosive Content: 2kg TNT
  • Operating Pressure "kg":
  • Length: n/a
  • Width: 82.5mm
  • Height: n/a
  • Diameter: 236mm
  • Fuse #1: Command detonated using PN manual inductor attached by demolition cable to an EDP-R electric detonator
  • Fuse #2:
  • MUV Series Mechanical Pull or
  • MVE-72 Electric Break wire "battery powered" or
  • VP13 Seismic Controller "battery powered".
Demining Hazards
 
Because it is a directional type of mine, it should never be approached from the front, always from the rear or side.
 
The MON-90 is known to be used with the VP13 seismic controller which prevents close approach for any clearance operations. If the mine is encountered with any type of electrical wires running from it, secure both ends of the wire before approaching the mine, because it could be linked to another mine or other booby trap device.
 
On detonation the mine will normally propel lethal fragmentation to a range between 75 and 125 meters. The actual hazard range for this mines can be as high as 160 meters "this is directly in front of the mine, fragmentation range and density drop off to 125 meters to the sides and rear of these mines". Always be alert for well concealed blast mines laid along tripwires "don't get tripwire fixation".
 
MON-200,
 
The MON-200 is a directional type anti-personnel mine designed and manufactured in Russia. It is an enlarged version of the MON-100 mine.
 
Because of its large size, this directional blast mine can also be used against light-skinned vehicles and helicopters.
 
MON-200 Specifications
  • Mine Type: Anti-personnel
  • Country of Origin: Russia
  • Mine Action:
  • Material: Sheet Metal
  • Shape: Circular
  • Color: Green, Olive
  • Total Weight: 25kg
  • Explosive Content: 12kg TNT
  • Operating Pressure "kg"
  • Length: n/a
  • Width: 130mm
  • Height: n/a
  • Diameter: 434mm
Yugoslavia 
 
               
           Yugoslav MRUD anti-personnel mine back, side view                 Yugoslav MRUD anti-personnel mine front, accessories fitted             Yugoslav MRUD anti-personnel mine line drawing                         
 
      
               Yugoslav MRUD anti-personnel mine fielded
MRUD "Serbia" "Mina Rasprskavajuća Usmerenog Dejstva"
 
The MRUD is a plastic bodied, convex rectangular directional type Anti-personnel mine designed to wound or kill by fragmentation. It is broadly similar to the M18A1 Claymore mine.
 
The casing is a light green color with two detonator wells and three crude sight lines on the top and an embossed grid pattern on the front of some early mines. Two detachable metal legs fit in slots on the bottom to secure the mine when it is ground mounted.
 
The body of the MRUD is waterproof and the mine can be used in temperatures from -30˚ to + 50˚ C. The mine body contains 900 grams of TNT based explosive and 650 5.5-millimeter steel balls. When fired the fragmentation has a lethal arc of 60 degrees and a lethal range of 40–50 meters. The MRUD kit comes packed with a manual inductor, circuit test device and an EK-40-69 electric detonator. The mine can be command detonated from up to 30 meters away using a manual inductor or another electrical power source. The fuse cavities also accept any Serbian booby trap fuse with an M10 x 1 mm including the UMP-1 and UMP-2 pull and the UMNOP-1 multi-function fuse.
 
The MRUD comes packed in a grey/green colored canvas shoulder bag which also contains the firing cable a circuit tester and a manual inductor. Ten of these sets come packed in a natural wooden crate.
 
These mines have been encountered mounted high in trees as well as the more conventional ground mounting. The MRUD can be located visually as well as with metal detectors. Depending on the actuation method the MRUD will have a limited resistance to blast overpressure from explosive breaching methods like the Giant Viper and MICLIC.
 
MRUD "Serbia" Specifications
  • Mine Type: Anti-personnel mine
  • Country of Origin: Yugoslavia
  • Name: Mina Rasprskavajuća Usmerenog Dejstva "Mine,
  • Directed Fragmentation"
  • Mine Action: Claymore-type directional fragmentation
  • Material: Plastic Casing
  • Shape: Claymore
  • Color: Light Green, Olive
  • Weight: 1500g
  • Explosive Content: 900g of Plastic Explosive
  • Length: 230mm
  • Width: 50mm
  • Height: 89mm
  • Fuse #1: Command Detonated "Electrical"
  • Fuse #2:
  • UMP-1 Mechanical Pull
  • UMNP-1 Mechanical Pull/Pressure
  • Detonation Cord "det cord" attached to PMA-1/2
Demining Hazards
 
The MRUD is usually command actuated by electric detonator, but it can also be set up for tripwire actuation. In Bosnia and Croatia it was combined with a PMA-2 blast type anti-personnel mine by inserting one end of a length of detonating cord in the detonator cavity of the MRUD and taping the other end of the detonating cord to the bottom of the PMA-2. When the blast mine actuated, the MRUD was actuated as well.
 
If an insulated wire is encountered, care must be taken to establish control of both ends of the wire before attempting to neutralize the mine. The mine should be approached from a 90˚ angle "never from the front" in order to remain outside of its blast arc. When tracking the route of a tripwire, keep in mind that additional anti-personnel blast mines may have been buried along its length. It is all too easy to concentrate on following the tripwire, forgetting what may lie concealed underneath it.
 
France
MAPED F1 ,
 
The MAPED F1 is a claymore shaped plastic bodied directional anti-personnel mine which is designed to wound or kill by fragmentation. It has been the standard directional anti-personnel mine of the French army since the late 1970s. The mine body is flat on the back and convex on the front, it has a small aiming sight on the top left corner and plastic lugs in the bottom corners for attaching a pair of "A" frame support legs. The mine contains a plastic explosive charge to propel 500 steel ball fragments to a range of 50 meters in a 60' arc. It is battery powered and is normally actuated by break wire, but tripwire and command actuation is also possible. The mine is surface mounted and it can be located visually or with metal detectors under most field conditions. The MAPED F1 can be defeated by blast overpressure from explosive breaching systems like the Giant Viper and MICLIC unless it is set up for command actuation.
 
Mine Operation
 
The MAPED F1 uses a very complex electric firing system. It is basically actuated by a contact wire. The battery pack and firing cable are attached to an electric detonator which is inserted in the mine and a spool of contact wire is rolled out. Any contact with the wire after the mine is armed will break the fibre, which collapses an electrical circuit and triggers the mine.
 
Hazards
 
The MAPED F1 is surface mounted and it can be located visually or with metal detectors under most field conditions. On detonation the mine will normally propel lethal fragmentation to a range between 40 and 60 meters. The actual hazard range for these types of mines can be as high as 300 meters based on US Army tests of the M18A1 "Claymore" "this is directly in front of the mine, fragmentation range and density drop off to 125 meters to the sides and rear of these mines".
 
South Africa
Mini MS-803 
 
The Mini MS-803 is a small South African produced Claymore type landmine. The design is very simple, with a convex brown polystyrene case containing a PE9 plastic explosive charge with three hundred 6 x 8 millimeter cylindrical steel fragments embedded into it. The mine is supported by two pairs of wire legs, which can be used to stack the mines. On the top of the mine is a small hole for inserting a detonator, which is surrounded with a PETN booster charge. The mine is normally used with an S4 electrical detonator connected to an M57 electrical firing device which is also used with the similar but larger Shrapnel mine Mk 2. The mine could also be used with MUV type pull detonators and tripwires, but after the Ottawa mine ban treaty South Africa has said that it will not use this mine with victim activated fuzes.
 
When the mine is triggered, the fragments are launched in a 60 degree arc to a lethal range of between 15 and 30 meters. The fragment density is claimed to be two per meter square at 15 meters with the fan of fragments reaching a height of two meters at a range of 30 meters. The fragments have enough energy at 25 meters to penetrate 10 millimeters of pine.
 
It was superseded by the Shrapnel mine Number 2 in South African service. The mine is found in Angola and Mozambique.
 
Mini MS-803 Specifications
  • Length: 220mm
  • Height: 70mm "excluding legs"
  • Width: 35mm
  • Weight: 1kg
  • Explosive content 0.46 kg of PE9 plastic explosive surrounding a PETN booster
Chinese 
 
      
                Chinese Type 66 Claymore Mine
 
Other National Copies
 
A number of licensed and unlicensed copies of the mine have been produced. 
  • Chile: M18 
  • China: Type 66 
  • Finland: Viuhkapanos VP 88 and "heavier" VP 84 
  • Hungary: IHR-60 
  • Italy: VS-DAFM 7 
  • Pakistan: P5 Mk1 
  • Philippines: M18A2 
  • Poland: M18 Claymore 
  • South Africa: Shrapnel mine No 2 
  • South Korea: K440, slightly smaller than the Claymore with 770 fragments. KM18A1 
  • Turkey: M18 AP Mine 
  • Vietnam: MDH-C40 
  • Sweden: FFV-013, Försvarsladdning 21, LI-12/Truppmina 12
 
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Revised: 02/04/2013 – 22:33:53