“TheCeļotājs”
"Latvia" Former Soviet Union Military Bases
 
Soviet Union Air-to-Surface Missiles
 
Air-to-Surface Missiles Types
 
AS-1 'Kennel'
Type: Anti-ship missile
Soviet designation: KS-1 Komet
Developer: Mikoyan
Length: 8.23m
Diameter: 1.2m
Span: 4.9m
Launch weight: 2,700kg
Maximum range: 140km
Maximum speed: 
Propulsion: Turbojet
Guidance: Command + active radar terminal homing
Warhead: 900 kg HE
Operational: Entered service in 1956, phased out by the early 1970s
Platforms: Tu-16KS-1
 
The KS-1 was developed during the early 1950s on the basis of the MiG-15 and MiG-17 jet fighters in response to a Navy requirement for an anti-ship cruise missile. Chief designer was A. Ya. Bereznyak at Mikoyan's Dubna branch. During the development phase a MiG-9 and a MiG-17 were fitted with the missile guidance system for use as manned testbeds. Missile guidance is provided by a Kobalt radar. Initially the missile had the US designation Type 19. The coastal version of the missile was designated S-2 Sopka (SSC-2). The Tu-16KS-1 could carry two missiles on under wing BD-187 pylons mounted just inside the mid-span position.
 
AS-2 'Kipper'
Type: Anti-ship missile
Soviet designation: K-10/K-10S, 352/K-10M Luga
Developer: Mikoyan
Length: 9.45m
Diameter: 0.9m
Span: 4.88m
Launch weight: 4,200kg
Maximum range: 190km
Maximum speed: 1,400km/h
Propulsion: RD-9FK turbojet
Guidance: Autopilot + active radar terminal homing
Warhead: 1,000 kg HE or 200-600kT nuclear
Operational: Entered service in 1961, phased out
Platforms: Tu-16K-10
 
Externally the K-10S resembled the American AGM-28 'Hound Dog' cruise missile with the jet engine mounted under the rear fuselage. Target indication is given by the large YeN (Puff Ball) radar. The Tu-16K-10 could carry a single missile semi-recessed beneath its fuselage on a BD-238 pylon.
 
AS-3 'Kangaroo'
Type: Land-attack cruise missile
Soviet designation: Kh-20/Kh-20M/Kh-20D
Developer: Mikoyan
Length: 14.95/14.96/14.96m
Diameter: 1.8m
Span: 9.15/9.04/9.04m
Launch weight: 11,600/11,000/11,000kg
Maximum range: 800km
Maximum speed: 1,850km/h
Propulsion: AL-7FK turbojet
Guidance: Command + autopilot
Warhead: 800kT nuclear/3 MT nuclear/3 MT nuclear
Operational: Entered service in 1960, phased out by the late 1980s
Platforms: Tu-95K, Tu-95KD, Tu-95KM
 
The development of the Kh-20 was ordered in March 1954 with the first test launch in March 1958. The missile was based on the airframe of the Ye-2 fighter that was essentially a swept-wing MiG-21 prototype. A modified MiG-19 designated SM-20P was used as a manned guidance system test bed. The Kh-20M production version of the missile featured some structural modifications, a larger thermonuclear warhead and increased the ceiling from 15 to 20 km. Before launch the missile was lowered from its semi-recessed position in the bomb bay on the BD-20 pylon, the protective nose cap was retracted and the jet engine was started. Maximum launch altitude was 15 km and the missile had a ceiling of 20 km. After launch the Tu-95 followed the missile until the target (a city or an industrial center) appeared on the aircraft radar at a distance of about 450 km. The Kh-20 was command guided by an operator to a  distance of 70 km from the target, when the missile autopilot was engaged. By this time the Tu-95 was 270 to 360 km away from the target. Mission profiles were primarily subsonic with supersonic target area penetration if required. The Kh-20 had a CEP of about 1,500 meters. In the autumn of 1960 the Kh-20M was tested against ship targets, but it was found to be too inaccurate for the anti-ship role. Later the M-20 air-launched target drone was developed from the Kh-20.
 
AS-4A/B/C 'Kitchen'
Type: Land-attack cruise missile/anti-ship missile/anti-radiation missile
Soviet designation: Kh-22PSI, Kh-22M, Kh-22NA/Kh-22PG, Kh-22MA/Kh-22P, Kh-22MP Burya
Developer: Raduga
Length: 11.65m
Diameter: 0.92m
Span: 3.0m
Launch weight: 5,770/5,675/?kg
Maximum range: 550km
Maximum speed: 3,600km/h
Propulsion: R-201-300 dual-chamber liquid-propellant rocket
Guidance: Inertial/inertial + active radar terminal homing/inertial + passive radar terminal homing
Warhead: 350kT nuclear/900kg HE or 350kT nuclear/900kg HE
Operational: Entered service in 1971/1968/1974
Platforms: Tu-22K, Tu-22M, Tu-95K-22
 
Initially a branch of Mikoyan, Raduga became an independent OKB in March 1957. The development of the Kh-22 was ordered in April 1958 with the first test launchings in July 1961. There were initially some accuracy problems, but they were solved during development. The active radar guided versions can use the radar of the launch aircraft or the missile's own radar for guidance. The PG radar seeker can lock on to a cruiser-sized target from a distance of 250 to 270 km. The inertial guided versions use the PSI doppler radar to compute distance covered. The passive radar homing missiles have the PGP passive radar seeker with a range of 380 to 350 kilometers. After launch the missile climbs to an altitude of 22,500 meters for cruise flight stabilized by the APK-22A autopilot and then dives into the target at an angle of 30 degrees. Maximum launch range depends on the speed and altitude of the launching aircraft: from a speed of 950km/h and an altitude of 10 km it is 400 kilometers and from a speed of 1,720km/h and an altitude of 14km 550 kilometers. The initial versions of the Kh-22 had a maximum speed of 3,600 km/h, which was increased to 4,000 km/h with the Kh-22M series that entered service in 1974 and 1976. The inertial-guided version has a CEP of 5 kilometers. The boost chamber of the rocket engine has a thrust of 83kN and the cruise chamber a thrust of 5,9kN. Total weight of TG-02 fuel and AK-20K oxidizer is about 3,000kg. The Kh-22B experimental version reached a speed of Mach 6 and an altitude of 70km during tests in the 1970s. A single missile was carried by the Tu-22K semi-recessed on a BD-294F pylon, whereas the Tu-22M can carry up to three missiles on BD-45 pylons.
 
AS-5A/B/C 'Kelt'
Type: Anti-ship missile/anti-ship missile/anti-radiation missile
Soviet designation: KSR-11/KSR-2M/KSR-2P
Developer: 
Length: 8.59m
Diameter: 0.9m
Span: 4.6m
Launch weight: 3,500kg
Maximum range: 220km
Maximum speed: Mach 1.2
Propulsion: Liquid-propellant rocket
Guidance: Inertial + active radar terminal homing/inertial + active radar terminal homing/inertial + passive radar terminal homing
Warhead: 1 MT nuclear/500 kg HE/500 kg HE
Operational: Entered service in 1962, phased out by the late 1980s
Platforms: Tu-16K-16, Tu-16K-11-16
 
The development of the KSR-2 began in April 1956 and flight tests started in November 1958. The operational ceiling of the missile is 9.1 km. The Tu-16Ks could carry two missiles on under wing BD-352 pylons mounted just inside the mid-span position.
 
AS-6A/B 'Kingfish'
Type: Anti-ship missile/anti-ship missile/anti-radiation missile
Soviet designation: KSR-5/KSR-5N/KSR-5P
Developer: Raduga
Length: 10.56m
Diameter: 0.92m
Span: 2.6m
Launch weight: 3,950kg
Maximum range: 400km
Maximum speed: Mach 3.0
Propulsion: Dual-chamber liquid-propellant rocket
Guidance: Inertial + active radar terminal homing/inertial + active radar terminal homing/inertial + passive radar terminal homing
Warhead: 1,000 kg HE/350kT nuclear/1,000 kg HE
Operational: Entered service in 1970/1972/1972
Platforms: Tu-16K-26, Tu-16K-10-26, Tu-16KSR-2-5
 
The development of the KSR-5 began in 1962 with the first tests in 1964. It is basically a smaller version of the Kh-22 missile for use on Tu-16 bombers. The thrust of the rocket engine can be varied in five steps from 11kN to 70kN. The missile carries 660 liters of TG-02 fuel and 1,010 liters of AK-2 oxidizer. Target indication is given by the Rubin (Short Horn) radar on the Tu-16K-26 and by the YeN (Puff Ball) radar on the Tu-16K-10-26. The missile is launched from an altitude of 0.5 to 11 km after which it climbs to an altitude of 20 km for cruise flight. The missile starts its terminal dive 60 km from the target. Later the KSR-5MV and KSR-5NM air-launched target drones were developed from the KSR-5. The Tu-16 variants can carry two missiles on under wing pylons mounted just inside the mid-span position.
 
AS-7 'Kerry'
Type: Tactical ASM/tactical ASM/anti-radiation missile
Soviet designation: Kh-66/Kh-23/Kh-24 Grom (Izdeliye 66/68/?)
Developer: Zvezda
Length: 3.63/3.59/3.59m
Diameter: 0.275m
Span: 0.811/0.785/0.785m
Launch weight: 278/287/287kg
Maximum range: 10km
Maximum speed: 2,300/2,700/2,700km/h
Propulsion: Solid-propellant rocket
Guidance: Radio command/radio command/passive radar homing
Warhead: 100/110/110 kg HE
Operational: Entered service in 1968/1974/?
Platforms: MiG-21, MiG-23, MiG-27, Su-17, Su-24
 
The development work of the Kh-23 missile was assigned to the Vympel OKB in April 1965. The missile was inspired by the American AGM-12 'Bullpup' ASM and it was to arm the MiG-23 fighter that was then under development. Vympel had difficulties designing small enough guidance systems and the program fell behind schedule. Thus, in early 1966 the Air Force accepted a proposal by the Zvezda OKB to produce a small ASM on the basis of their K-5 and K-8 AAMs. The resulting Kh-66 missile used the propulsion system of the K-8 with the nozzle split in two. The guidance system was based on that of the K-5 and the earlier experimental RS-2US ASM. First test launches of the Kh-66 were conducted from a MiG-21PFM fighter in September 1966.
 
The Kh-66 was only a temporary solution and therefore work on the Kh-23 was transferred from Vympel to Zvezda. The Kh-23 used many components from the Kh-66 but it had the new Delta-R1M radio command guidance system and new rocket propellant. The Kh-23 was first tested in early 1968 with the State Acceptance tests on MiG-23S and MiG-23B aircraft completed in the autumn of 1973. The missile can be launched at altitudes of 100 meters to 5 kilometers at speeds from 550 to 1,500km/h. Hit probability is 50 to 60 percent.
 
AS-8
The 9M114 Kokon anti-tank missile carried by Mi-24 helicopters was initially designated AS-8 by the US DoD. It was later redesignated AT-6 'Spiral' in the Anti-Tank missile series.
 
AS-9 'Kyle'
Type: Anti-radiation missile
Soviet designation: Kh-28 (Izdeliye 93)
Developer: Raduga
Length: 5.97m
Diameter: 0.43m
Span: 1.39m
Launch weight: 690kg
Maximum range: 90km
Maximum speed: 3,500km/h
Propulsion: R-253-300 liquid-propellant rocket
Guidance: Passive radar homing
Warhead: 140 kg HE
Operational: Entered service in 1973, phased out
Platforms: MiG-21bis, Su-17M, Su-24
 
The development of the Kh-28 began in January 1963 on the basis of Kh-22 and KSR-5 missile technology. Test launches from the Yak-28N light bomber, for which the missile had originally been designed, began in 1966. However, when the Kh-28 development was finalized in the early 1970s, serial production of the Yak-28 had ended, and it was thus decided to arm instead the Su-17 and Su-24 strike aircraft with the missile. The Su-17 can carry one missile under fuselage and uses the Metel-A ESM pod for programming the missile, whereas the Su-24 can carry two missiles and uses the Filin ESM pod. From low altitude the launch range is reduced to 45 km. For guidance the missile originally used the APR-28 passive radar seeker developed by NPO Avtomatika. The seeker was tuned to the frequencies of the Nike-Hercules, Thunderbird and Bloodhound SAMs. Later the Kh-28M missile received a new PRG-28M seeker that could be used also against the radars of the HAWK SAM system. The missile can be launched at altitudes of 200 meters to 11 kilometers. The Kh-28 was exported to Warsaw Pact countries, Yugoslavia, Libya, Iraq and Vietnam.
 
AS-10 'Karen'
Type: Tactical ASM
Soviet designation: Kh-25/Kh-25ML/Kh-25MR/Kh-25MD (Izdeliye 69/713/715/?)
Developer: Zvezda
Length: 4.04/3.71/3.69/?m
Diameter: 0.275m
Span: 0.82/0.73/0.73/?m
Launch weight: 320/300/300/300kg
Maximum range: 10km
Maximum speed: 3,100km/h
Propulsion: PRD-276 dual-thrust solid-propellant rocket
Guidance: Semi-active laser homing/semi-active laser homing/radio command/imaging IR seeker
Warhead: 135 kg HE/90 kg BF/90 kg BF/90 kg BF
Operational: Entered service in 1975
Platforms: MiG-23B, MiG-27, MiG-29M, Su-17, Su-24M, Su-25, Su-32, Su-35, Su-39, Ka-50 (only Su-17 can carry MR; MD platforms not known)
 
Because the radio command guidance method of the Kh-23 missile was very demanding for the pilot, other means of controlling ASMs were sought and finally it was decided to use a laser for target designation. The Kh-25 missile was developed jointly by Zvezda and Sukhoi for use on Su-17 strike aircraft. The Kh-25 was fitted with the 24N1 seeker head that detected laser reflections from the target that was illuminated by an aircraft mounted Prozhektor-1 laser or by a ground-based laser designator. The laser targeting system was based on American airborne laser designators captured in Vietnam. The missile had a SUR-71 autopilot and an additional warhead weighing 24 kilograms was fitted in the rear fuselage in place of the Delta command guidance system. First tests of the Kh-25/Su-17 combination were conducted at the end of 1973.
 
Experience from the Kh-23, Kh-25 and Kh-27PS programs was applied to the new Kh-25M missile series. The only difference between the four missile types (ML, MR, MP and MD) is the guidance section. Kh-25ML has the same 24N1 semi-active laser seeker head as the Kh-25, whereas the Kh-25MR uses the Delta radio command guidance system of the Kh-23 missile with a SUR-73 autopilot. Kh-25MD is the latest version with imaging IR guidance. The missiles
can be launched at altitudes of 50 meters to 5 kilometers and speeds of 600 to 1,250 km/h.
 
AS-11 'Kilter'
Type: Anti-radiation missile (first three)/anti-ship missile (Kh-58A)
Soviet designation: Kh-58/Kh-58U/Kh-58E/Kh-58A (Izdeliye 112)
Developer: Raduga
Length: 4.81/4.81/4.81/5.0m
Diameter: 0.38m
Span: 1.45/1.45/1.45/1.17m
Launch weight: 640/640/640/650kg
Maximum range: 160/250/250/180km
Maximum speed: Mach 3.6
Propulsion: Solid-propellant rocket
Guidance: Autopilot + passive radar terminal homing (first three)/autopilot + active radar terminal homing (Kh-58A)
Warhead: 150 kg HE/150 kg HE/150 kg HE/150 kg SAP
Operational: Entered service in 1982
Platforms: MiG-25BM, Su-17M4, Su-24M, Su-39, Yak-141 (anti-radiation versions)
 
The development of the Kh-58 began in 1972 as a replacement for the Kh-28, especially for the Su-24M aircraft, and thus the missile originally had the designation Kh-24. Su-24M aircraft armed with Kh-58 carry either the Fantasmagoria-A targeting pod covering targets in the A, A1 and B frequency bands, or the Fantasmagoria-B pod covering targets in the B1 and C frequency bands. MiG-25BM uses the internal Jaguar system covering all frequencies, whereas Su-17M3P, Su-17M4 and Su-22M4 use the Vyoga pod that can only target HAWK and I-HAWK radars. The passive radar seeker of the Kh-58 itself can target various surveillance radars in addition to the Nike-Hercules, HAWK, I-HAWK and Patriot SAM systems.
 
The missile performs a "hump" maneuver in the terminal phase to hit the target at a 20-30 degree angle which improves the effectiveness of the warhead. Hit probability of the anti-radiation version within a 20 meter radius of the target radar is claimed to be 80 percent. The Kh-58U was designed primarily for the MiG-25BM SEAD aircraft. It has extended range, improved aerodynamic characteristics and guidance system allowing lock-on after launch mode, and a new rocket engine. The Kh-58E is an export version of the Kh-58U without the lock-on after launch feature. The missile can be launched at speeds of Mach 0.47 to 1.5 from altitudes of 0.1 to 22 kilometers, but from low altitude the launch range of the Kh-58 is reduced to 36km, and that of the Kh-58U to 80km. The Kh-58 was exported to Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany and Poland.
 
AS-12A/B/C 'Kegler'
Type: Anti-radiation missile
Soviet designation: Kh-27PS/Kh-25MP/Kh-25MPU (Izdeliye 72/711/?)
Developer: Zvezda
Length: 4.36/4.19/4.30m
Diameter: 0.275m
Span: 0.73m
Launch weight: 320kg
Maximum range: 60/10/40km
Maximum speed: 3,100 km/h
Propulsion: PRD-276 dual-thrust solid-propellant rocket
Guidance: Passive radar homing
Warhead: 90 kg BF/90 kg BF/86 kg BF
Operational: Entered service in 1978/1981/1991
Platforms: MiG-27, MiG-29M, Su-17M, Su-24M, Su-32, Su-35, Su-39, Ka-50
 
Work on the Kh-27PS anti-radiation missile began in 1972. It was based on the Kh-25 with a passive radar seeker and a dual-thrust rocket engine to extend its range to 60 km. The missile had two interchangeable seeker heads with antennas tuned to the radar frequencies of the HAWK and Nike Hercules SAM systems respectively. Targeting was done with the Vyoga ESM pod. The missile was programmed to perform a "hump" maneuver in the terminal phase to hit the target at a 20-30 degree angle and thus improve the effectiveness of the warhead. The Kh-25MP is a later version based on the universal Kh-25M design. For threats in the A-waveband a PRGS-1VP seeker is used, whereas for A1-waveband threats a PRGS-2VP seeker is utilized. The Kh-25MPU is a modernized version designed to defeat also the Roland and Crotale SAM systems. The missile can be launched at altitudes of 50 meters to 10 kilometers and speeds of 600 to 1,250 km/h. The Kh-25MP was exported to East Germany, Czechoslovakia and Poland.
 
AS-13 'Kingpost'
Type: Tactical ASM
Soviet designation: Kh-59 Ovod
Developer: Raduga
Length: 5.37m
Diameter: 0.38m
Span: 1.26m
Launch weight: 760kg
Maximum range: 50km
Maximum speed: 1,000km/h
Propulsion: Solid-propellant rocket booster + solid-propellant rocket sustainer
Guidance: Inertial + TV with data link
Warhead: 148 kg HE
Operational: Entered service in 1984
Platforms: Su-24M
 
The Kh-59 missile is somewhat similar in concept to the American AGM-84E SLAM. The initial design was based on the Kh-58, but it had to be abandoned because the missile speed was too high for visual target acquisition. The TV image from the Kh-59 is received and guidance commands are sent by an APK-8 pod. Target coordinates are fed into the missile before launch, and the initial flight phase is conducted under inertial guidance. At a distance of 10 kilometers from the target the television guidance system is activated. An operator aboard the aircraft visually identifies the target and locks the missile onto it. The Kh-59 cruises at an altitude of about 7 meters above water or 100-1,000 meters above ground with the help of a radar altimeter. It can be launched at speeds of 600 to 1,000 km/h at altitudes of 0.2 to 11 kilometers and has a CEP of 2 to 3 meters. It is carried on an AKU-58-1 launch pylon. Tests of the Kh-59 were conducted from Su-17M4 strike fighters, but eventually the missile was adapted for operational use only on Su-24M aircraft.
 
AS-14A/B 'Kedge'
Type: Tactical ASM
Soviet designation: Kh-29L/Kh-29T/Kh-29TE/Kh-29D (Izdeliye 63/64/?/?)
Developer: Vympel
Length: 3.88m 
Diameter: 0.38m
Span: 1.1m
Launch weight: 660/685/690/660kg
Maximum range: 10/10/28/?km
Maximum speed: 2,900km/h
Propulsion: Solid-propellant rocket
Guidance: Semi-active laser homing/TV homing/TV homing/imaging IR seeker
Warhead: 320 kg HE
Operational: Entered service in 1985
Platforms: MiG-27, MiG-29M, Su-17, Su-24M, Su-25 (L), Su-30MK, Su-32, Su-35, Su-39
 
The development of the Kh-29 began in the Molniya KB in the mid-1970s, but the work was later transferred to Vympel. The missile is intended primarily for use against heavily fortified targets or bridges and thus has a very large warhead. The Kh-29L utilizes the same 24N1 laser seeker developed by NPO Geofizika as the Kh-25 (AS-10) missile. Target designation is provided by an aircraft-mounted Klen or Kaira laser or a ground-based laser designator. The Kh-29T uses the Tubus-2 electro-optical seeker developed by NPO Impuls. The Kh-29TE is an extended-range version for primarily anti-ship use. The Kh-29 can be launched at altitudes of 0.2 to 10 kilometers and speeds of 600 to 1,250 km/h.
 
AS-15A/B 'Kent'
Type: Land-attack cruise missile (ALCM)
Soviet designation: Kh-55/Kh-55SM (Izdeliye 120/125)
Developer: Raduga
Length: 6.04m
Diameter: 0.51/0.77m
Span: 3.1m
Launch weight: 1,250/1,500kg
Maximum range: 2,500/3,000km
Maximum speed: 750km/h
Propulsion: R-95-300 turbofan
Guidance: Inertial + TERCOM
Warhead: 200kT nuclear
Operational: Entered service in 1984/1988
Platforms: Tu-95MS/Tu-160
 
The development of the Kh-55 began in 1976 after the Soviets had acquired the blueprints of the American Tomahawk cruise missile. The Kh-55 was first test launched in 1978 from a Tu-95M-55 bomber. During the tests modified Il-76 aircraft designated Il-676, Il-776 and Il-976 were used for telemetry collection. Warhead arming and launch are accomplished automatically by remote signal from a ground control post via satellite, the flight crew merely monitoring the procedure. The Kh-55 can be launched from altitudes of up to 12 kilometers. The missile cruises at an altitude of 40 to 200 meters and has a CEP of about 150 meters. It is equipped with the Sprut guidance system and the BSU-55 control system that performs terrain following flight and anti-intercept maneuvering. Its turbofan engine was developed by Soyuz KB. The Kh-55SM has additional conformal fuel tanks for extended range. The submarine-launched S-10 (SS-N-21) missile and the ground-launched RK-55 (SSC-X-4) developed to the same specification use the same engine and guidance system as the Kh-15.
 
AS-16 'Kickback'
Type: Tactical ASM/anti-radiation missile/anti-ship missile
Soviet designation: Kh-15/Kh-15P/Kh-15S (Izdeliye 115)
Developer: Raduga
Length: 4.78m
Diameter: 0.455m
Span: 0.92m
Launch weight: 1,200kg
Maximum range: 150km
Maximum speed: Mach 5.0
Propulsion: Dual-chamber solid-propellant rocket
Guidance: Inertial/inertial + passive radar terminal homing/inertial + active radar terminal homing
Warhead: 350kT nuclear/150 kg HE/150 kg SAP
Operational: Entered service in 1980/1988/?
Platforms: Su-32, Su-35, Tu-22M3, Tu-160 (P)
 
The Kh-15 is an aero ballistic missile very similar to the American AGM-69 SRAM. After launch from a speed of 1,000 to 2,100 km/h and an altitude of 0.3 to 22 km, the missile climbs to a height of about 40 km. After having acquired its target, the missile dives, reaching a speed of Mach 5. The range of the anti-ship Kh-15S version varies from 150 km against cruiser-sized to 60 km against corvette-sized targets.
 
AS-17A/B/C/D 'Krypton'
Type: Anti-ship missile/anti-radiation missile/anti-ship missile/anti-radiation missile
Soviet designation: Kh-31A/Kh-31P/Kh-31AD/Kh-31PD (Izdeliye 77A/77P)
Developer: Zvezda
Length: 4.7m
Diameter: 0.36m
Span: 1.15m
Launch weight: 600kg
Maximum range: 50/110/100/150km
Maximum speed: Mach 3.5
Propulsion: Solid-propellant rocket booster + liquid-propellant ramjet sustainer
Guidance: Inertial + active radar terminal homing/passive radar homing/inertial + active radar terminal homing/passive radar homing
Warhead: 90 kg SAP/90 kg HE/90 kg SAP/90 kg HE
Operational: Entered service in 1988/1991/in development/in development
Platforms: MiG-27K (P), MiG-29M, Su-24M (P), Su-30MK (P), Su-32, Su-35, Su-39, Yak-141
 
Work on the Kh-31P began in 1977 with the first test launches taking place in 1982. The anti-radiation version of the missile was developed specially to counter the American Patriot SAM system. The passive radar seeker for the Kh-31P was designed by NPO Avtomatika and the ARGS-31 active radar seeker for the Kh-31A by NPO Leninets. The Kh-31P is targeted with the help of a Fantasmagoria ESM pod on the Su-24M, or with the internal SPO-32 Pastel RWR on later aircraft. The Kh-31P has a CEP of 5 to 7 meters, or 20 to 30 meters if the target radar is shut down before the missile reaches it. The Kh-31A anti-ship version can destroy ships of up to 4,500 tons displacement. The combustion chamber of the missile's ramjet engine is filled by a solid-propellant rocket booster. After launch, the booster accelerates the missile to a speed of Mach 1.8, after which it is discarded and the liquid-propellant ramjet takes over, its four air intake holes opening up. There is possibly also an air-to-air "anti-AWACS" version of the missile with passive radar homing and a range of 200km. The missiles can be launched at altitudes of 0.1 to 15 kilometers at speeds of 600 to 1,100km/h. The Kh-31 has been exported to China, India and Vietnam.
 
AS-18 'Kazoo'
Type: Land-attack cruise missile/anti-ship missile
Soviet designation: Kh-59M/Kh-59MK Ovod-M
Developer: Raduga
Length: 5.69m
Diameter: 0.38m
Span: 1.30m
Launch weight: 930kg
Maximum range: 115/285km
Maximum speed: 1,050km/h
Propulsion: Solid-propellant rocket booster + RDK-300 (350 kg)/36MT (450kg) turbofan sustainer
Guidance: Inertial + TV with data link/inertial+ active radar
Warhead: 320 kg HE or 280 kg of submunitions/320 kg HE penetrating
Operational: Entered service in 1992/in development
Platforms: MiG-27K, Su-24M, Su-30MK, Su-32, Su-35/Su-30MK3
 
The Kh-59M is based on the Kh-59 (AS-13) missile, the primary differences being the addition of a small turbofan engine below the fuselage and a larger warhead. The TV image from the missile is received and guidance commands are sent by the APK-8 pod on MiG-27K or APK-9 pod on newer aircraft. The missile has a CEP of 2-3 meters with manual or 5-7 meters with automatic aiming. The Kh-59ME is an export version of the Kh-59M. The Kh-59MK is an anti-ship variant with increased range. Its ARGS-59 active radar seeker has a maximum detection range of 25 km against a 5,000 m2 RCS targets and 15 km against a 300 m2 RCS targets. The Kh-59M cruises at an altitude of about 7 meters above water or 50-1,000 meters above ground. It can be launched at speeds of 600 to 1,000km/h at altitudes of 0.2 to 11 kilometers.
 
AS-X-19 'Koala'
Type: Land-attack cruise missile (ALCM)
Soviet designation: 3M25A Meteorit-A (Kh-80)
Developer: NPO Mash
Length: 12.8m
Diameter: 
Span: 
Launch weight: 6,300kg
Maximum range: 5,000km
Maximum speed: Mach 2.5
Propulsion: Liquid-propellant ramjet sustainer
Guidance: Inertial + TERCOM
Warhead: Two independently targetable 200kT nuclear warheads with 100 km separation
Operational: Cancelled
Platforms: Tu-95MA, Tu-160M
 
The development of the Meteorit-A began in December 1976 as an air-launched version of the P-750 Meteorit-M (SS-NX-24) and Meteorit-N (SSC-X-5) advanced cruise missiles. One Tu-95MS heavy bomber was converted to serve as the Tu-95MA prototype that carried one missile under each wing root. The first test launch was made in January 1984, but the program was cancelled at the end of that year after several unsuccessful launches as the Kh-55 (AS-15) was already entering service. The Meteorit was to be a long range supersonic high altitude land-attack cruise missile. It was initially designated BL-10 by the US DoD.
 
AS-20 'Kayak'
Type: Anti-ship missile
Soviet designation: Kh-35U/Kh-35V (Izdeliye 78)
Developer: Zvezda
Length: 3.75m
Diameter: 0.42m
Span: 1.3m
Launch weight: 480/630kg
Maximum range: 130km
Maximum speed: 1,100km/h
Propulsion: Solid-propellant rocket booster + turbofan sustainer
Guidance: Inertial + active radar terminal homing
Warhead: 145 kg SAP
Operational: Entered service in 1994
Platforms: Su-32, Su-35, Su-39, Tu-142M, Yak-141/Ka-27, Ka-28
 
The development of the Kh-35 began in April 1984. The ship-launched version has the US designation SS-N-25 and the coastal version SSC-X-6. The missile is built mainly of aluminum and has folding wings and tail fins. Its ARGS-35 
active radar seeker has been developed by Leninets. The Kh-35 cruises at an altitude of 5-10 meters, reducing to 3-5 meters during the terminal phase. It can sink ships of up to 5,000 tons displacement. The Kh-35E1 Uranium is a variant for export with 250 kilometer range and inertial/GPS guidance. The missile can be launched at altitudes of 0.2 to 5 kilometers at speeds of 600 to 1,100km/h.
 
AS-X-21
Type: Land-attack cruise missile (ALCM)
Soviet designation: Kh-90
Developer: Raduga
Length: 
Diameter: 
Span: 
Launch weight: 
Maximum range: 3,000km
Maximum speed: Mach 4
Propulsion: Solid-propellant rocket booster + liquid-propellant ramjet sustainer
Guidance: Inertial + TERCOM
Warhead: Nuclear
Operational: Cancelled
Platforms: Tu-95
 
The Kh-90 missile is closely related to the GELA experimental hypersonic flight vehicle. It was revealed in 1995, and test launches have been made from a Tu-95 bomber. The Kh-90 was probably designed as a hypersonic long-range land-attack cruise missile with some stealth characteristics.
 
AS-X-22
Type: Anti-ship missile
Soviet designation: Kh-41 Moskit
Developer: Raduga
Length: 9.39m
Diameter: 0.76m
Span: 2.1m
Launch weight: 3,950kg
Maximum range: 250km
Maximum speed: Mach 2.5
Propulsion: Solid-propellant rocket booster + 3D83 liquid-propellant ramjet sustainer
Guidance: Inertial + active or passive radar terminal homing
Warhead: 320 kg SAP
Operational: Entered service in 1994
Platforms: Su-32, Su-33
 
The Kh-41 is an air-launched version of the P-270 (SS-N-22) anti-ship missile that arms Tarantul III-class patrol boats. Its propulsion system developed by OKB Soyuz is similar to that of the Kh-31 ASM. Maximum launch altitude is 12 km. The missile cruises at an altitude of about 20 meters, reducing to 7 meters during the terminal phase. The Kh-41 has the highest speed of all modern anti-ship missiles and it can sink ships of up to 20,000 tons displacement.
 
Soviet – US Designation Cross Reference:
 
Kh-15 – AS-16
Kh-20 – AS-3
Kh-22 – AS-4
Kh-23 – AS-7 
Kh-24 – Original designation of Kh-58.  
Kh-25 – AS-10/AS-12
Kh-26 – AS-6 
Kh-27 – AS-12
Kh-28 – AS-9
Kh-29 – AS-14
Kh-30 – Ramjet missile with integral booster. Weight 3,500kg, range 200 km, AR guidance. 1968.
Kh-31 – AS-17
Kh-32 – Possible Kh-22 replacement.
Kh-33 – Sukhoi anti-ship missile for T-4. Evolved into Kh-45.
Kh-35 – AS-20
Kh-36 – Possible Kh-25M replacement. Weight 300kg, IIR guidance. 
Kh-37 – Kh-35 development. GPS/IIR guidance, range 250km. 
Kh-38 – Possible Kh-25M replacement. Weight 300kg, PR guidance.
Kh-45 – Anti-ship missile for T-4M, T-4MS, Tu-160. Range 600km.
Kh-51/52 – Anti-ship missile. Range 250-300km.
Kh-55 – AS-15
Kh-58 – AS-11
Kh-59 – AS-13/AS-18
Kh-61 – Air-launched version of the Yakhont supersonic anti-ship missile. Range 300km.
Kh-65 – Anti-ship/land-attack cruise missile developed from Kh-55. Range 280/600km.
Kh-66 – AS-7
Kh-80 – AS-X-19
Kh-90 – AS-X-21
Kh-101 – Conventional Kh-90 replacement. Subsonic, stealthy, range 5,000km.
Kh-102 – Nuclear Kh-90 replacement. Subsonic, stealthy, range 5,000km. 
Kh-111 – ?
Kh-555 – Conventional upgrade of Kh-55 cruise missile with TV terminal guidance.
Kh-2000 – SRAM, evolved into Kh-15.
 
 
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Revised: 02/04/2013 – 03:26:30