“TheCeļotājs”
"Latvia" Former Soviet Union Military Bases
 
Vaiņode Former Soviet Union Aerodrome Army Air Force Base Aircraft
Armament
Aircraft Armament that could have been found at Vaiņode Former Soviet Union Aerodrome Army Air Force Base 
Lat: N56.41104, Lon: E021.89177 
Vaiņodes muiža 7, Vaiņode, Latvia
 
Soviet Union Sukhoi Su-15 Aircraft Interceptors' Armament
 
    
                        Sukhoi Su-15 [NATO] Flagon 
 
Armament
  • 2 × R-98M [AA-3 "Anab"], normally 1 Radar Homing and 1 IR Homing "Outer Wing Pylons"
  • 2 × or 4 × R-60 [AA-8 "Aphid"] "Inner Pylons"
  • Option of 2 × UPK-23-250 23mm Gun Pods on Fuselage Pylons
R-98M [AA-3 "Anab"] also K-8/R-8/R-98 Missile 
 
         
                                                                                                                                               R-98M [AA-3 "Anab"],
 
Kaliningrad K-8 "R-8" [NATO] reporting name AA-3 "Anab" was a medium-range air-to-air missile developed by the Soviet Union for interceptor aircraft use. 
 
Developed by OKB-339/NII-339 "currently Phazotron NIIR". Infrared seeker was developed by TsKB-589 GKOT currently "TsKB Geofizika", who also developed seeker for 9M31 missile of 9K31 Strela-1. 
 
History
 
    
                                                                         Kaliningrad K-8 "R-8" [NATO] reporting name AA-3 "Anab"
 
The K-8's development began in 1955, known as R-8 in service. Like most Soviet air-to-air missiles, it was made with a choice of semi-active radar homing or infrared seeker heads. The original missile was compatible with the Uragan-5B radar used on the Sukhoi Su-11 and several developmental aircraft from Mikoyan-Gurevich. 
 
It was upgraded to R-8M "better known as R-98" standard in 1961, giving the SARH weapon the capability for head-on intercepts. In 1963 it was further upgraded to the R-8M1, making it compatible with the RP-11 Oriol-D radar of the Sukhoi Su-15 and Yakovlev Yak-28P.
 
Subsequent development led in 1965 to R-8M2, more commonly called R-98, with longer range and improved seekers, compatible with the upgraded RP-11 Oryol-M "Eagle" radar. The final variant, introduced from 1973, was the R-98M1 [NATO] "Advanced Anab" with better countermeasures resistance and longer range, matched to the Taifun-M radar of the Su-15TM and Yak-28PM interceptors. 
 
The R-98M1 remained in service through the 1980s, being withdrawn with the last Su-15 'Flagon' interceptors. 
 
A variant using the seeker heads of the K-13, giving better dogfight capability, was developed in 1960 as the K-88, but it did not enter service. 
 
An inert training version was also developed, designated UR-8M. 
 
The R-98 brought down Korean Air Lines Flight 007 on 1 September 1983.
 
"R-98MT / R-98MR" Specifications
  • Length: "R-98MT" 4m "13 feet 1 inch", "R-98MR" 4.27m "14 feet"
  • Wingspan: 1300mm "4 feet 3 inches"
  • Diameter: 280mm "11 inches"
  • Launch Weight: "R-98MT" 272kg "600 pounds", "R-98MR" 292kg "642 pounds"
  • Speed: Mach 2
  • Range: 23km "14.4 miles"
  • Guidance: "R-98MT" infrared homing, "R-98MR" Semi-Active Radar Homing
  • Warhead: 40kg "88 pounds" Blast Fragmentation
R-60 [AA-8 "Aphid"] Missile
 
The Molniya now "Vympel" R-60 [NATO] reporting name AA-8 "Aphid" is a lightweight air-to-air missile designed for use by Soviet fighter aircraft. It has been widely exported, and remains in service with the CIS and many other nations.
 
    
                                                                                               Molniya now "Vympel" R-60
 
History
 
    
                Two R-60 missiles mounted on a MiG-29K. 
 
The R-60 was initially developed for the MiG-23. Work began on the weapon, under the bureau designation K-60 "izdeliye 62", in the late 1960s. Series production began in 1973. It entered service with the designation R-60 [NATO]
Aphid-A".
 
When introduced, the R-60 was one of the world's smallest air-to-air missiles, with a launch weight of 44kg "97 pounds". It has infrared guidance, with an un-cooled Komar "Mosquito" seeker head. Control is by forward rudders with large rear fins. The distinctive canards on the nose, known as "destabilizers," serve to improve the rudders' efficiency at high angles of attack. The R-60 uses a small, 3kg "6.5 pounds" expanding-rod high explosive warhead. Two different types of proximity fuze can be fitted: the standard Strizh "Swift" optical fuse, which can be replaced with a Kolibri active radar fuse. Missiles equipped with the latter fuse were designated R-60K. 
 
According to Russian sources, practical engagement range is about 4,000m "4,400 yards", although "brochure range" is 8km "5 miles" at high altitude. The weapon was at until recently one of the most agile air to air missiles, and can be used by aircraft maneuvering at up to 9g against targets maneuvering at up to 8g. A tactical advantage is the short minimum range of only 300m "328 yards".
 
Considering that Soviet practice was to manufacture most air-to-air missiles with interchangeable IR-homer and semi-active radar homing seekers, [NATO] speculated that there might have been a SARH version of the 'Aphid.' However, it is clear that the small size of the 'Aphid' makes a radar-homing version with an antenna of reasonable size impractical, and no such weapon appears to have been contemplated.
 
An inert training version, alternatively designated UZ-62 and UZR-60, was also built.
 
An upgraded version, the R-60M [NATO] "Aphid-B", using a nitrogen-cooled seeker with an expanded view angle of ±20°, was introduced around 1982. Although its seeker is more sensitive than its predecessor, the R-60M has only limited all-aspect capability. Minimum engagement range was further reduced, to only 200m "218.7 yards". The proximity fuzes had improved resistance to ECM, although both optical and radar fuzes remained available "radar-fuzed R-60Ms with the Kolibri-M fuze are designated R-60KM". The R-60M is 42mm "1.7 inches" longer, and has a heavier, 3.5kg "7.7 pounds" continuous-rod warhead, increasing launch weight to 45kg "99 pounds". In some versions the warhead is apparently laced with about 1.6kg "3.5 pounds" of depleted uranium to increase the penetrating power of the warhead. 
 
The inert training version of the R-60M was the R-60MU.
 
Since 1999, a modified version of the weapon has been used as a surface-to-air missile "SAM" as part of the Yugoslav M55A3B1 towed anti-aircraft artillery system. It has also been seen carried on a twin rail mount on a modified M53/59 Praga armored SPAAG of "former" Czechoslovakian origin. These missiles have been modified with the addition of a first stage booster motor, with the missile's own motor becoming the sustainer. This was done in lieu of modifying the missile's motor for ground launch, as in the case of the US MIM-72 Chaparral.
 
The current Russian dogfight missile is the Vympel R-73 [AA-11 "Archer"], but large numbers of "Aphids" remain in service.
 
Molniya now Vympel R-60 Specifications
 
    
Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-23L Cannon 
 
         
                                                                                    Two Barrel GSh-23L Cannon UPK-23-250 23mm Gun Pods on Fuselage Pylons
 
The Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-23 "ГШ-23" is a twin-barreled 23mm auto-cannon developed in the Soviet Union, primarily for military aircraft use. It entered service in 1965, replacing the earlier Nudelman-Rikhter NR-23 cannon.
 
The GSh-23 works on the Gast Gun principle [See Appendix VIII] developed by German engineer Karl Gast of the Vorwerk company in 1916. It is a twin-barreled weapon in which the firing action of one barrel operates the mechanism of the other. It provides a much faster rate of fire for lower mechanical wear than a single-barrel weapon, although it cannot match the rate of fire of an electric Gatling gun like the M61 Vulcan. The Gast principle has been little used in the West, but was popular in the former Soviet Union on a variety of weapons.
 
The cannon comes in a basic GSh-23 variant, and the more popular GSh-23L "ГШ-23Л", differing mostly in adding a muzzle brake, lowering recoil force. This cannon was standard fit on late-model MiG-21 fighters "M, SM, MF, SMT, bis", all variants of the MiG-23, the SOKO J-22 Orao, the HAL Tejas and IAR 93, and the tail turrets of the Tupolev Tu-22M bomber and some late-model Tu-95s. In that application, it had the unusual ability to fire infrared flares and chaff rounds, allowing it to function as both a weapon and a dispenser of anti-missile countermeasures. It is also mounted on late small series Mi-24VP helicopters "in the NPPU-23 movable mounting" and Polish W-3WA Sokół helicopter in fixed mounting. The cannon was also used on cargo aircraft; specifically, Russian/Soviet Ilyushin Il-76 aircraft were designed to accommodate twin Gsh-23L's in a tail turret. An Il-76M with just such a configuration could be seen at the 2002 Ivanovo air show.
 
Some 2nd generation MiG-21 models could carry the GSh-23L in an under-fuselage gondola designated the GP-9, carrying the cannon and 200 rounds of ammunition; this was replaced by a more streamlined semi-conformal installation in later variants. There are also several gun pods available for mounting on external hard points: UPK-23 for air-to-air use, with one or two fixed GSh-23 guns and 200-400 rounds of ammunition, and SPPU-22 pods with traversable barrels for strafing, from 0° to −30° and carried 280 rounds of ammunition in each "they were most often carried by the Su-17/-20/-22 as well as the Su-25/-39 in pairs".
 
GSh-23L 23mm Cannon Specifications
 
    
Gast Principle
Vorwerk Worldwide
 
KBP Instrument Design Bureau 
 
 
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Revised: 01/29/2013 – 13:12:21