“TheCeļotājs”
"Latvia" Former Soviet Union Military Bases
 
Vaiņode Former Soviet Union Aerodrome Army Air Force Base Aircraft
Armament
Aircraft Armament that could have been found at Vaiņode Former Soviet Union Aerodrome Army Air Force Base 
Lat: N56.41104, Lon: E021.89177
Vaiņodes muiža 7, Vaiņode, Latvia
 
Sukhoi Su-27SM Armament
 
Vympel R-77 Advanced Medium-Range Missile
 
    
                                R-77/RVV-AE "AA-12 Adder"
 
The Russian R-77 "RVV-AE" Missile [NATO] reporting name: "AA-12 Adder" is a medium range, air-to-air, active radar-guided missile system. It is the Russian counterpart to the American AIM-120 AMRAAM missile, thus gaining a nickname: "Amraamski".
 
Development
 
    
                                           R-77 "RVV-AE Missile [NATO] AA-12 Adder
 
Work on the R-77 began in 1982. It represented Russia's first multi-purpose missile for both tactical and strategic aircraft for fire-and-forget use against a range of aircraft from hovering helicopters to high speed, low altitude aircraft. "Gennadiy Sokolovski", general designer of the Vympel Design Bureau, said that the R-77 missile can be used against medium and long range air-to-air missiles such as the AIM-120 AMRAAM and AIM-54 Phoenix, as well as "SAMs" such as the Patriot. It can be used against cruise missiles and precision-guided munitions "PGMs". First seen in 1992 at the "MosAeroshow" 1992, the R-77RVV-AE was immediately nicknamed "Amraamski" by Western journalists. The Russian-language version of the acronym for the weapon is RVV-AE and it is also known as the Izdieliye-170 "Product-170".
 
The R-77 can be used by most of the Russian Air force fighter aircraft, since many of their aircraft, primarily MiG-29, Su-27 and MiG-31, were upgraded recently. The same is true for the PLAAF of China, who use the Su-27 as well as a copy, the J-11. The newer Su-30MKK has a N001 "Su-27 radar" with a digital bypass channel incorporating a mode allowing it to use R-77s. Newer Russian aircraft from the MiG-29S "N019M radar" onward are not restricted in this regard.
 
There are other variants under development. One has an upgraded motor to boost range at high altitudes to as much as 120–160km; it is known as the R-77RVV-AE-PD. The 'PD' stands for "Povyshenoy Dalnosti", which in Russian means Improved Range. This variant has been test-fired and uses a solid-fuel ramjet engine. Its range puts it in the long-range class and is equivalent in range to the AIM-54 Phoenix. In another version of the R-77, a terminal infra-red homing seeker is offered. This is in line with the Russian practice of attacking targets by firing pairs of missiles with different homing systems. This complicates end-game defensive actions for the target aircraft, as it needs to successfully defeat two homing systems. This method of attack may not always be available as IR seekers typically have less range and less resistance to poor weather than radar seekers, which may limit the successful use of mixed seeker attacks unless the IR missile is initially directed by radar or some other means.
 
The weapon has a laser fuze and an expanding rod warhead that can destroy the variable sized targets. A product-improvement of the R-77 Adder is in the works, codenamed the R-77M1, and will feature a ramjet propulsion device. This heavier missile system will have a much greater range, and will surely be the primary beyond visual range "BVR" air-to-air weapon in upcoming fifth generation Russian frontline fighters.
 
The radar-guided R-77 has been sold widely, with China and India placing significant orders for the weapon, as was the case for the R-73. The baseline R-77 was designed in the 1980s, with development complete by around 1994. India was the first export customer for the export variant, known as the RVV-AE, with the final batch delivered in 2002. 
 
Vympel was the victim of a lack of adequate funding during the 1990s and the first part of this decade to support further evolution of the R-77, either for the Russian air force or the export market. The basic version of the R-77 is not thought to have entered the Russian air force inventory in significant numbers.
 
Additionally, Western suppliers have been pushing into some traditionally Russian markets and some major customers of the R-77 such as India and China have been pursuing their own missile programs, with similar goals, such as the Astra and the PL-12, respectively.
 
Further Developments
 
Tactical Missile Corp., also known as TRV, unveiled its so-called RVV-SD and RVV-MD missiles for the first time at the Moscow air show in August 2009. The RVV-SD is an improved version of the R-77 "AA-12 Adder", while the RVV-MD is a variant of the R-73 "AA-11 Archer". 
 
The RVV-SD, along with the RVV-MD, seem to be part of Russia's bid for India's medium multirole combat aircraft competition. Both designations were included by MiG on a presentation covering MiG-35 Fulcrum armament during Aero India Air Show in February.
 
The basic R-77 is known as the Article 170, and the RVV-SD includes the upgrades associated with the Article 170-1 designation. The 170-1 development has been underway for some time, and testing is believed to have been carried out. The RVV-SD is in effect the export variant of the 170-1.
 
According to information released by the company, the missile is 15 kg (33 lb) heavier than the basic R-77/RVV-AE, weighing 190kg "420 pounds" rather than 175kg "390 pounds". Maximum range is increased to 110km "68 miles" from 80km "50 miles". The missile is also slightly longer at 3.71 meters "12.2 feet", rather than the 3.6 meters "12 feet" of the basic variant.
 
The radar seeker has also probably been upgraded. Russian missile manufacturer "Agat" previously confirmed it was working on seeker upgrades for the R-77, implying that at least two projects were underway, one for export and one for the Russian air force.
 
Vympel, which originally designed the R-77, and is now part of TRV—is also working on a more extensive upgrade of the missile than the 170-1. This project is designated the Article 180, and is in effect a mid-life upgrade for the weapon. This is intended to provide a further improvement in range, with the design including a dual-pulse motor configuration. Moving from the R-77's signature lattice fin configuration to a conventional fin is also part of this program.
 
The initial RVV-MD offering is likely no more than a stopgap to try to maintain its position, and to provide a credible radar-guided weapon to offer as part of fighter export packages and upgrade programs.
 
Russian industry sources indicate that both the RVV-SD and RVV-MD will have folding fins to allow for internal carriage. This at least suggests the Russian air force may be keeping its options open should it acquire the domestic variants of these upgrades to include them in the weapons inventory of its fifth-generation fighter, known as PAK-FA. India too, is a partner in the PAK-FA project, and the internal carriage modification may also have been performed with this in mind.
 
Description
 
The aerodynamics are novel, combining vestigial cruciform wings with tail control surfaces of a lattice configuration "similar devices are used on the R-400 Oka". Each surface consists of a metal frame containing a blade-like grid assembly which combines a greater control area, and thus lifting force, with reduced weight and size. The development for this control concept took three years of theoretical work and testing. Referred to by the Russians as gas dynamic declination devices, these surfaces require less powerful actuators than conventional fins, and have a lower RCS. The flow separation which occurs at high angles of attack enhances its turning ability, giving the missile a maximum turn rate of up to 150º per second.
 
    
            Vympel R-77 Seeker Head 
 
The missile uses a multi-function "doppler-monopulse" active radar seeker developed by "OAO Agat". The radar features two modes of operation, over short distances, the missile will launch in an active "fire and forget" mode. Over longer distances the missile is controlled by an inertial auto pilot with occasional encoded data link updates from the launch aircraft's radar on changes in spatial position or G of the target. As the missile comes within 20km "12.42 miles" of its target, the missile switches to its active radar mode. The host radar system maintains computed target information in case the target breaks the missile's lock-on.
 
R-77/RVV-AE Specifications
 
    
 
KAB-500KR and KAB-500L Guided Bombs
 
KAB-500KR

              
 
The KAB-500KR is an electro-optical TV-guided fire and forget bomb developed by the Soviet Air Force in the 1980s. It remains in service with the CIS and various export customers.
 
The KAB-500KR is analogous to the American GBU-15 weapon. It uses a standard Soviet/Russian FAB-500 general-purpose bomb, with a nominal weight of 500kg "1,102 pounds", as a warhead, adding a low-light television seeker and guidance fins to turn it into a guided, unpowered glide bomb.
 
The bomb is 3.05m "10 feet" long and weighs 560kg "1,234 pounds", of which 380kg "837 pounds" is a hardened, armor-piercing warhead capable of penetrating up to 1.5m "4 feet 11 inches" of reinforced concrete. The weapon's seeker can lock onto a target at ranges of up to 15 to 17km "9.4 to 10.6 miles", depending on visibility. The technology of KAB-500KR is also used for larger bombs, such as KAB-1500KR based on the 1500 kg class FAB-1500 iron bomb.
 
KAB-500L
 
         
 
The KAB-500L is a laser-guided bomb developed by the Soviet Air Force. It remains in service with the CIS and post-Soviet Russian Air Force.
 
The KAB-500L is analogous to the U.S. Paveway series: it is a standard FAB-500 general-purpose bomb, which has a nominal weight of 500kg "1,102 pounds", fitted with a semi-active laser seeker and guidance fins, turning it into a guided, unpowered glide bomb.
 
The KAB-500L is 3.05m "10 feet" long and weighs 525kg "1,155 pounds". Its warhead makes up 450kg "990 pounds" of the total weight, of which roughly 50% is blast-effect high explosive. Russian sources credit it with a CEP of 7 meters "23 feet".
 
It is also deployed by the Indian Air Force. The primary launch platform is Su-30MKI.
 
LT-2
 
    
 
The Chinese LT-2 LGB bears many similarities to the Russian KAB-500L. It is probable that the LT-2 incorporated some technologies reverse-engineered from the KAB-500L. However, at the 7th Zhuhai Airshow held in November, 2008, the developer of the LT series revealed that LT series precision guided bombs are actually based on the American Paveway design.
 
Kh-29 Missile 
 
    
                                               Kh-29 AS-14 "Kedge"
 
The Kh-29 "Russian: Х-29; AS-14 'Kedge' GRAU 9M721" is a Soviet air-to-surface missile with a range of 10–30km. It has a large warhead of 320 kg, has a choice of laser, infrared, active radar or TV guidance, and is typically carried by tactical aircraft such as the Su-24, Su-30, MiG-29K as well as the "T/TM" models of the Su-25, giving that craft an expanded standoff capability.
 
It is comparable to the United States' AGM-65 Maverick missile but with a much heavier warhead. The Kh-29 is intended for primary use against larger battlefield targets and infrastructure such as industrial buildings, depots and bridges, but can also be used against ships up to 10,000 tons, hardened aircraft shelters and concrete runways. 
 
Development
 
Design started in the late 1970s at the Molniya design bureau in Ukraine on what would be their only air-to-ground ammunitions, but when they moved exclusively to space work Vympel took over development of the Kh-29. The first
firing of the missile took place in 1976 and after extensive trials the Kh-29 was accepted into service in 1980. 
 
Design
 
The basic aerodynamic layout of the Kh-29 is similar to the Molniya R-60 "AA-8 "Aphid" , reflecting Molniya's heritage in air-to-air missiles. The laser guidance head came from the Kh-25 "AS-10 "Karen" and the TV guidance from the Kh-59 "AS-13 "Kingbolt", mated to a large warhead. 
 
Operational History
 
The Kh-29 entered service with the Russian Air Force in 1980, and has been widely exported since. 
 
Variants
  • Kh-29L "Izdeliye 63, "Kedge-A" uses semi-active laser guidance and has a range of 8–10km. 
  • Kh-29ML is an upgraded version of the Kh-29L.
  • Kh-29T "Izdeliye 64, "Kedge-B" is the TV-guided version which is fitted with automatic optical homing to a distinguishable object indicated by the pilot in the cockpit.
  • Kh-29TE is a long-range "30km" development of the Kh-29T. Minimum range is 3km; launch altitude is 200-10,000m. 
  • Kh-29MP is a third generation guidance variant with active radar homing, makes it a fire-and-forget weapon. It has a large 250kg warhead with 12km range. 
  • Kh-29D is a fourth guidance variant "Fire-and-Forget" of the Kh-29TE, using imaging infrared.
Kh-29 AS-14 "Kedge" Specifications
 
    
Kh-31 Missile 
 
    
                                             Kh-31 AS-17 "Krypton"
 
The Kh-31 "Russian: Х-31; AS-17 "Krypton" is a Russian air-to-surface missile carried by aircraft such as the MiG-29 or Su-27. It is a sea skimming cruise missile with a range of 110 kilometers "60nmi; 70 miles" or more and capable of Mach 3.5, and was the first supersonic anti-ship missile that could be launched by tactical aircraft. 
 
There are several variants, it is best known as an anti-radiation missile "ARM" but there are also anti-shipping and target drone versions. There has been talk of adapting it to make an "AWACS killer", a long-range air-to-air missile.
 
Development
 
The proliferation of surface-to-air missiles "SAMs" has made the Suppression of Enemy Air Defense a priority for any modern air force intending offensive action. Knocking out air search radars and fire control radars is an essential part of this mission. ARMs must have sufficient range that the launch platform is out of range of the SAMs, high speed to reduce the risk of being shot down and a seeker that can detect a range of radar types, but they do not need a particularly big warhead.
 
The Soviet Union's first ARM was developed by the Raduga OKB engineering group [See Appendix I] responsible for the Soviet Union's missiles for heavy bombers. The Kh-22P was developed from the 6-tons Raduga Kh-22 "AS-4 "Kitchen"  missile. Experience gained with this led in 1971 to the Kh-28 "AS-9 "Kyle" carried by tactical aircraft such as the Su-7B, Su-17 and Su-24. It had Mach 3 capability and a 120km "60nmi" range, greater than the contemporary AGM-78 Standard ARM. The Kh-28 was succeeded by the Kh-58 in 1978, which has similar speed and range but replaces the dual-fuel rocket motor with a much safer RDTT solid propellant.
 
The development of more sophisticated SAMs such as the MIM-104 Patriot and the US Navy's Aegis combat system put pressure on the Soviets to develop better ARMs in turn. Zvezda came at the problem from a different angle to Raduga, having a background in lightweight air-to-air missiles. However in the mid-1970s they had developed the successful Kh-25 family of short-range air-to-surface missiles, including the Kh-25MP "AS-12 "Kegler" for anti-radar use. Zvezda started work on a long-range ARM in 1977, and the first launch of the Kh-31 was in 1982. It entered service in 1988 and was first displayed in public in 1991, the Kh-31P at Dubai and the Kh-31A at Minsk.
 
In December 1997 it was reported that a small number of Kh-31's had been delivered to China, but that "production had yet to begin".  It was around this time that the Russians sold Su-30MKK 'Flanker-G' aircraft to the Chinese. It seems that the original deliveries were of the original Russian model designated as X-31, to allow testing whilst the KR-1 model was being developed for license production. Local production may have started by July 2005. 
 
Russian development has accelerated since Zvezda was subsumed into the Tactical Missiles Corporation in 2002, with the announcement of the 'D' extended range models and the 'M' model mid-life updates "Variants section below".
 
Design
 
 
    
                                                     L112E Seeker
 
In many respects the Kh-31 is a miniaturized version of the P-270 Moskit "SS-N-22 "Sunburn" and was reportedly designed by the same man. The missile is conventionally shaped, with cruciform wings and control surfaces made from titanium. The two-stage propulsion is notable. On launch, a solid-fuel booster in the tail accelerates the missile to Mach 1.8  and the motor is discarded. Then four air intakes open up and as in the Franco-German ANS/ANF the empty rocket case becomes the combustion chamber of a kerosene-fuelled ramjet, which takes it beyond Mach 4. 
 
The L-111E seeker of the anti-radar version has a unique antenna, an interferometer array of seven spiral antennas on a steerable platform. The seekers delivered to China in 2001-2 were 106.5cm "41.9 inches" long, 36cm "14 inches" in diameter, and weighed 23kg "51 pounds". 
 
Operational History
 
The Kh-31P ARM entered service in Russia in 1988 and the Kh-31A anti-shipping version in 1989. Unlike its predecessors, it can be fitted to almost any of Russia's tactical aircraft, from the Su-17 to MiG-31.
 
As mentioned above, a few Kh-31P/KR-1's were delivered to China in 1997 but these were apparently for testing and development work. The Chinese ordered Russian missiles in late 2002 or early 2003, leading to 200 KR-1's in their inventory by 2005; the Chinese press reported in July 2005 that Su-30MKK's of the 3rd Air Division had been equipped with the missiles. In 2001 India bought Kh-31s for its Su-30MKI; they appear to have bought 60 Kh-31A and 90
Kh-90P. 
 
The US Navy bought eighteen MA-31 target drones  of which thirteen were fired between 1996-2003. An $18.468-million order for thirty-four MA-31 was placed in 1999, but this order was blocked by the Russians  and the remaining drones were expended in December 2007. The MA-31 was launched from an F-4 Phantom, and work was done on a kit to launch it from an F-16. 
 
Variants
  • Kh-31A - active seeker head for use as an anti-shipping missile against vessels up to destroyer size, range of 25km–50km "13.5–27nmi; 15.5–31 miles". Missile is sea-skimming as it approaches the target.
  • Kh-31P "Type 77P" passive seeker head for use as an anti-radiation missile. Stays at high altitude throughout its flight, allowing higher  speeds and increasing range to 110km "60nmi; 70 miles". The seeker has three interchangeable modules to cover different radar frequency bands, but they can only be changed at the factory.
  • Kh-31AD/Kh-31PD "Kh-31 Mod 2" - increase range "by a modest amount" through increasing the fuselage from 4.70m "15 feet 5 inches" to 5.23m "17 feet 2 inches" long. 
  • Kh-31AM/Kh-31PM - substantial update to electronics and propulsion systems, trials scheduled for 2005/6. Updated resistance to countermeasures, better fuses, and an improved 31DP propulsion system that "considerably" improves the range with little increase in weight. The Kh-31AM has an improved RGS-31 active seeker, whilst the Kh-31PM replaces the L-111, L-112 and L-113 seekers with a single multiband unit, the L-130.
  • MA-31 - telemetry and other systems installed by McDonnell Douglas/Boeing for use by the US Navy as a target drone. Tested between 1996-9; a version upgraded with GPS, the MA-31PG, was offered to the Navy as a replacement for the MQM-8 Vandal but they bought the GQM-163 Coyote. Even with the additional equipment, the MA-31 was capable of Mach 2.7 and 15G maneuvers in its anti-ship "sea-skimming" flight profile and Mach 3.5 in ARM mode at 48,000 feet "15,000m".
  • KR-1 - version of the Kh-31P exported to China in 1997. It seems that Zvezda wanted to sell an initial batch of KR-1's to China, before the KR-1 went into production in China. Rather than the original three seeker modules, the KR-1 has a single K-112E "export" seeker targeting D-F band "S band" emissions, and reportedly optimized for specific Taiwanese radars.
  • YJ-91 Ying Ji 91 - Chinese missile based on the Kh-31P, with faster speed, slightly longer range, and easier switching of seeker heads. They are also reported to have developed an anti-shipping version with an indigenous active seeker, and are looking to develop this for use in submarines. The name YJ-91 was already in use by 1997, and may have been a Chinese name for the original Russian missiles  designated X-31 by the Russians. By 2005, the name YJ-93 was being applied to missiles made in China, but Western reports generally do not distinguish between YJ-91 and YJ-93.
An active/passive air-to-air version for use against slow-moving support aircraft, a so-called "AWACS killer", was announced at the 1992 Moscow air show with 200km "110nmi; 120 miles" range. That would be less than the 300–400 kilometers "160–220nmi; 190–250 miles" promised by the Vympel R-37 "AA-13 "Arrow" and Novator R-172 missiles, but a Kh-31 derivative could be carried by a wider range of aircraft. However this may have been mere propaganda; in 2004 the Tactical Missiles Corporation "emphatically denied" that it had ever worked on an air-to-air version of the Kh-31. In 2005 rumors persisted of a Russian AWACS killer based on the Kh-31A anti-shipping model, and of the Chinese adapting the YJ-91, derived from the Kh-31P, for the same purpose.
 
Kh-31 AS-17 "Krypton" Specifications
 
    
Kh-35 Missiles
 
    
Kh-35 [NATO] reporting name: AS-20 "Kayak" 3M24 Uran "SS-N-25 'Switchblade' 3K60 Bal SSC-6 "Stooge"
 
The Zvezda Kh-35U "Russian: Х-35У; AS-20 "Kayak" is the jet-launched version of a Russian subsonic anti-ship missile. The same missile can also be launched from helicopters, surface ships and coastal defense batteries with the help of a rocket booster, in which case it is known as Uran "Uranus' SS-N-25; "Switchblade"; "RAU 3M24" or Bal "Baal';SSC-6 "Stooge"; GRAU 3K60" [See Appendix II]. It is also nicknamed "Harpoonski" for its similarity to the AGM-84 Boeing Harpoon. It is designed to attack vessels up to 5000 tons.
 
Development
 
Zvezda started work on the Kh-35 in 1983 as a surface-to-surface missile to replace the SS-N-2 Styx for export markets.
 
Design
 
The Kh-35 missile is a subsonic weapon featuring a normal aerodynamic configuration with cruciform wings and fins  and a semisubmerged air duct intake. The propulsion unit is a turbofan engine. The missile is guided to its target at
the final leg of the trajectory by commands fed from the active radar homing head and the radio altimeter. 
 
Target designation data can be introduced into the missile from the launch aircraft or external sources. Flight mission data is inserted into the missile control system after input of target coordinates. An inertial system controls the missile in flight, stabilizes it at an assigned altitude and brings it to a target location area. At a certain target range, the homing head is switched on to search for, lock on and track the target. The inertial control system then turns the missile toward the target and changes its flight altitude to an extremely low one. At this altitude, the missile continues the process of homing by the data fed from the homing head and the inertial control system until a hit is obtained.
 
A new radar seeker, Gran-KE have been developed by SPE Radar MMS  and will be replacing the existing ARGS-35E X band seeker. 
 
Operational History
 
The Kh-35 entered service in 2003. It has also been acquired by India.
 
Variants
  • Kh-35"3M-24" Base naval version for Russia "2003". Missile range- 120km, detection range 20km
  • Kh-35E "3M-24E" Export version of Kh-35 "2003"
  • Kh-35U Base upgrade unified missile "can be used with any carrier", version for Russia in development. Range 260km, with active-passive radar homing head, protection from spoofing, detection range 50km.
  • Kh-35UE Export version of Kh-35U, in development.
  • Kh-35V Version for Russia, launched from a helicopter.
  • Kh-35EV Export version of Kh-35V
  • 3M-24EMV Export version of Kh-35 missile-target without warhead for Vietnam
  • Kh-35 Uran/Uran-E "SS-N-25 "Switchblade", 3M-24" - Ship borne equipment of the control system with a missile Kh-35/Kh-35E 
  • Bal/Bal-E "SSC-6 "Stooge" - the coastal missile complex with a missile Kh-35/Kh-35E
    
                                                                                                    Kh-35E maq
 
    
Seeker Kh-35E Kh-35 [NATO] Reporting Name: AS-20 "Kayak" 3M24 Uran SS-N-25
"Switchblade" 3K60 Bal SSC-6 "Stooge"
 
Kh-35 Missiles Specifications
 
    
 
Tactical Missiles Corporation JSC
Address: 7, Ilicha Str.,
Korolev, Moscow region, 141075, Russia
Telephone: +7 (095) 542-57-09
Fax:            +7 (095) 511-94-39
Email: kmo@ktrv.ru
Director general: Boris V. Obnosov
First deputy director general-designer general: Vladimir N. Yarmolyuk
 
 
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Revised: 01/30/2013 – 22:11:02