“TheCeļotājs”
"Latvia" Former Soviet Union Military Bases
 
The Lubyanka Building, 
Federal Security Service "FSB" Headquarters
and the Solovetsky Stone 
 
    
                  Original building of headquarter of the All-Russia Insurance Company, before 1917 / The Lubyanka Building in modern times
 
The Lubyanka, Russian: "Лубя́нка; IPA: [lʊˈbʲankə]" is the popular name for the headquarters of the KGB and affiliated prison on Lubyanka Square in Moscow, Russia. It is a large Neo-Baroque building with a facade of yellow brick designed by Alexander V. Ivanov in 1897 and augmented by Aleksey Shchusev from 1940 to 1947.
 
The Lubyanka was originally built in 1898 as the headquarters of the All-Russia Insurance Company. It is noted for its beautiful parquet floors and pale green walls. Belying its massiveness, the edifice avoids an impression of heroic scale: isolated Palladian and Baroque details, such as the minute pediments over the corner bays and the central loggia, are lost in an endlessly-repeating palace facade where three bands of cornices emphasize the horizontal lines. A clock is centered in the uppermost-band of the facade.
 
Following the Bolshevik Revolution, the structure was seized by the government for the headquarters of the secret police, then called the Cheka. In Soviet Russian jokes, it was referred to as the tallest building in Moscow, since Siberia
could be seen from its basement. Another joke referred to the building as "Adult's World" as compared to "Children's World," the name of the popular toy shop across the street.
 
During the Great Purge, the offices became increasingly cramped due to staff numbers. In 1940 Aleksey Shchusev was commissioned to double its size by adding another storey and engulfing backstreet buildings. Shchusev's design accentuated Neo-Renaissance detailing, but only the left part of the facade was reconstructed under his direction in the 1940s, due to the war and other hindrances. This asymmetric facade survived intact until 1983, when the symmetry was restored at the urging of Communist Party General Secretary and former KGB Director Yuri Andropov in accordance with Shchusev's plans.
 
Although the Soviet secret police changed its name many times, its headquarters remained in this building. Secret police chiefs from Lavrenty Beria to Yuri Andropov used the same office on the third floor, which looked down on the statue of Cheka founder Felix Dzerzhinsky. A prison at the ground floor of the building figures prominently in Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's classic study of the Soviet police state, The Gulag Archipelago. Famous inmates held, tortured and interrogated there include Sidney Reilly, Raoul Wallenberg, Ion Antonescu János Esterházy, Alexander Dolgun, and Walter Ciszek.
 
After the dissolution of the KGB, the Lubyanka became the headquarters of the Border Guard Service of Russia, and houses the Lubyanka prison and one directorate of the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation "FSB". In addition a museum of the KGB, now called "Историко-демонстрационный зал ФСБ России", Historical-demonstration hall of the Russian "FSB" was opened to the public.
 
In 1990, the Solovetsky Stone was erected across from the Lubyanka to commemorate the victims of political repression.
 
Solovetsky Stone 
 
              
                                                                                                             The Solovetsky Stone in Moscow 
 
Memorial to the Victims of the Totalitarian Regime
 
A memorial to the victims of the GULAG camp network. On 30 October 1990, this monument consisting of a large stone brought from the Solovetsky Islands, was erected on Lubyanka Square, best known as the location of the headquarters of the KGB and its predecessors, the NKVD and CheKa.
 
This single stone slab is from the Solovetsky Island Labor Camp. This camp, one of the first gulags, is located on the site of an ancient monastery in the White Sea. The monument was installed in 1990 by an organization devoted to exposing the truth about Stalinism. Its inscription reads, "in memory of the millions of victims of the totalitarian regime". 
 
         
                          Map showing location of Solovetsky Island                                       Maksim Gorki at the prison camp
 
The Solovki Prison Camp, "later Solovki Prison", located on the Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea, was a large forced labor camp for political prisoners of Imperial Russia, and later the Soviet Union. During the Soviet era, as "Solovki
Special Purpose Camp" it became a model where the NKVD developed and tested security measures, "living conditions", work production norms for prisoners, and different methods of repression. The exact number of prisoners who went through the camp during 1923–1939 is still unknown, but estimates range between tens and hundreds of thousands. It was the "mother of the GULAG" according to Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn.
 
The Solovetsky Stone located at 55°45′32.8″N 37°37′39.2″E / [Lat:N55.759111, Lon: E37.627556]  is a monument located in Lubyanka Square in Moscow, across from KGB headquarters. The monument consists of a large stone brought from the Solovetsky Islands, the location of Solovki Prison Camp, part of the Soviet Gulag system. According to the Russian NGO Memorial, the monument was erected on 30 October 1990 to commemorate a 1974 initiative by political prisoners to establish a "Day of Political Prisoners in the USSR." In 1991, the Supreme Soviet of Russia officially established 30 October as the Day of Remembrance of the Victims of Political Repressions. 
 
    
              Solovetsky Stone in Troitskaya Square, 
       Saint Petersburg, Russia. Translation of the text:
                    "To the Prisoners of the Gulag".
 
Another Solovetsky Stone was erected in the public garden on Troitskaya Square located at 59°57′10.13″N 30°19′32.13″E / [Lat: N59.9528139, Lon: E30.3255917] in Saint Petersburg in 2002. It was designed by Yevgeny Ukhnalyov and is officially known as the "Memorial to the Victim of Political Repressions in Petrograd - Leningrad". The monument is a 10 ton granite boulder taken just "50 meters from the place of mass executions of the prisoners of the Solovki Prison Camp". The rock is set on a polished granite base with inscriptions "To prisoners of GULAG", "To victims of Communist Terror", "To Freedom Fighters" and a line from the "Requiem" poem of Anna Akhmatova: "I wish to call all of them by name, but" "Хотелось бы всех поименно назвать" The monument was unveiled on 4 September 2002 in preparation for celebrations of 300 years of Saint Petersburg. According to Solvki Encyclopedia Ukhnalyov and the architect of the memorial, State Duma deputy Yuly Rybakov, paid all the expenses personally including the transportation of the 10,400kg boulder from the Solovetsky Islands in the White  Sea. The Saint Petersburg City Administration would not help finance the memorial despite significant budget allocated to celebrate the Tercentenary of the City.
 
 
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Revised: 02/10/2013 – 15:52:45