"Latvia" Former Soviet Union Military Bases
The Police of Russia
Полиция Politsiya
Breastplate of Russian Police Officer
The police – Russian: "полиция", tr. "politsiya"; IPA: [pɐˈlʲit͡sɨjə] is the central law enforcement body in Russia, operating under the Ministry of Internal Affairs. It was established in 2011 replacing the militsiya "militia", the former police service.
The police operates according to the Law on police "Закон "о полиции", which has been approved by the Federal Assembly and subsequently signed into law on 7 February 2011 by President of Russian Federation Dmitry Medvedev.
         Russian Policeman on duty. Russian postcard,
         early 20th century
The police in Saint Petersburg was established as the Main Police on 7 June 1718 by decree from Peter the Great. Anton de Vieira was appointed as the first General Polizmeister.
On 19 January 1722 the Governing Senate established the Moscow Police. The Detective Department was founded in 1866 operating under the Police Department of MVD, and by 1907 similar departments were created in other major
cities of the Russian Empire, including Moscow, Kiev, Riga, Odessa, Tiflis, Baku and Rostov-on-Don.
The Police of Russian Empire was dissolved on 10 March 1917, and on 17 April the Provisional Government established the People's Militia "Militsiya" as a new law enforcement body.
Weapon formations staffed by Nazi collaborates fought against soviet partisans during Nazi occupation of the Soviet territory in the Second World War had the name "police " "Polizei in German".
2011 Police Reform
Russian police reform "Закон РФ "о полиции" "Zakon RF "O politsii" "Law on police" is an ongoing effort initiated by President Dmitry Medvedev to improve the efficiency of Russia's police forces, decrease corruption and improve the public image of law enforcement. On 7 February 2011, amendments were made to laws on the police force, the criminal code and the criminal procedure code. The amendments came into force on 1 March 2011. These changes stipulate a personnel cut of 20% in law enforcement, a renaming of Russian law enforcers from "militsiya" "militia" to "politsiya" "police", substantial increases in wages, centralization of financing, and several other changes. Around 217 billion rubles "$7 billion" have been allocated from the federal budget to finance the reform.
Main Changes and Aims of the Reform
  • Name change. Under the reform, the name of Russian law enforcers was changed from the Soviet-era term "militsiya" militia to the more universal "politsiya" police on 1 March 2011.
  • Personnel reduction and salary increase. The number of police officers will be reduced by 20%, dropping from 1.28 million to 1.1 million by 2012. The reduction will be accomplished via a comprehensive evaluation of all officers. The    evaluation will be conducted before June 2011, and those failing the evaluation will end up losing their jobs. All officers who in the past have received administrative penalties or who have links to the criminal underworld will be fired. For those officers surviving the reduction, salaries will be increased by 30%.
  • Centralization. As a result of the reform, the Russian police will be made a federal-level institution, with funding accomplished fully from the federal budget. Under the old system, police units responsible for public order and petty crimes were under the jurisdiction of regional and city authorities, financed from regional budget and responsible more to the regional governors than to the federal center. 
  • Changes to police and detainee rights. According to the new law, the detainee will receive a right to make a telephone call within 3 hours of the detention. He will also receive the right to have a lawyer and interpreter from the moment of his detention, and police must inform the detainee of his rights and duties. The police will lose its right to carry out and demand checks of a company's financial and business activities. Police may also no longer detain a citizen for an hour just to verify his identity. 
Transportation and Weapons
Police uses a number of different models of automobile which range greatly in age and technical specification.
Central Administration
  • Criminal Police Service
    • the Criminal Investigations Department 
      • Main Office for Criminal Investigation 
      • Main Office for Combating Economic and Tax Crimes 
      • Main Office for Combating Organized Crime 
      • Office for Operational Investigation Information 
      • Co-ordination Office of Criminal Police Service 
  • Public Security Service 
    • The Uniformed Police 
      • Main Office for Public Order Maintenance 
      • Main Office of State Road Safety Inspection 
      • Main Directorate for Road Traffic Safety 
      • Main Office of the Interior for Restricted Facilities 
      • Main Office of Interdepartmental Security Guard Service 
      • Co-ordination Office of Public Security Service 
      • Main Office of the Interior for Transport and Special Transportation 
      • Office for Passports and Visas 
      • External Labor Migration Department 
      • Legal Office 
      • Office for Crisis Situations 
      • Office for Resource Provisions 
      • Finance and Economy Office 
  • Logistical Service 
    • Office for Material and Technical Support 
    • Finance and Economy Department 
    • Medical Office 
    • Office for Communication and Automation 
    • Office for Capital Construction 
    • Co-ordination Office of Logistical Service 
    • General Services Office 
  • Independent Divisions 
    • Office of Affairs - the Secretariat 
    • Main Office for Internal Security -Internal affairs 
    • Control and Auditing Office 
    • Internal Troops General Headquarters 
    • MVD Inquiry Committee 
    • Forensic Expertise Center 
    • Main Office for Organization and Inspection 
    • The MVD Inspector General
  • Main Office for Special Technical Actions 
      • Special operations 
    • ODON 
    • OMON 
  • Main Office for "Special" Investigations
      • Special branch 
    • National Central Bureau for Interpol 
    • Mobilization Training Office 
    • Main Center for Information 
    • Main Legal Office 
    • Office for International Co-operation 
    • Office for Information Regional Contacts
Revised: 02/10/2013 – 12:19:17