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The "Treaty of Versailles"
 
    
 
The Treaty of Versailles – French: "le Traité de Versailles" was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919, exactly five years after
the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The other Central Powers on the German side of World War I were dealt with in separate treaties. Although the armistice signed on 11 November 1918, ended the actual fighting, it took six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty. The treaty was registered by the Secretariat of the League of Nations on 21 October 1919, and was printed in The League of Nations Treaty Series.
 
Of the many provisions in the treaty, one of the most important and controversial required Germany to accept responsibility for causing the war, along with Austria and Hungary, according to the "Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye" and the "Treaty of Trianon", respectively and, under the terms of articles 231–248, later known as the "War Guilt" clauses, to disarm, make substantial territorial concessions and pay heavy reparations to certain countries that had formed the Entente powers. In 1921 the total cost of these reparations was assessed at 132 billion Marks "then $31.4 billion or £6.6 billion, roughly equivalent to US $442 billion or UK £284 billion in 2013", a sum that many economists at the time, notably John Maynard Keynes, deemed to be excessive and counterproductive. The argument by Keynes that the terms were too harsh too "Carthaginian" convinced many British and American leaders, but left [the French unmoved]. 
 
The harsh terms of the Treaty of Versailles and the state it left Germany in, was the start of the rise of Hitler and the second World War.
 
The result of these competing and sometimes conflicting goals among the victors was compromise that left none contented: Germany was not pacified or conciliated, nor permanently weakened. This would prove to be a factor leading to World War II.
 
Treaty of Versailles
 
Signed at Versailles "France" on 28 June 1919; came into force on 10 January 1920.
Although the United States is a signatory, the treaty was never ratified by the U.S. Senate: see the Treaty of Peace between Germany and the United States of America, signed at Berlin on August 25, 1921. Official texts in English: [1919] UKTS 4 "Cmd. 153"; [1920] ATS
 
Treaty of Versailles the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany
Part II. Boundaries of Germany – Articles 27–30
Part VI. Prisoners of War and Graves – Articles 214–226
Part VII. Penalties – Articles 227–230
Part VIII. Reparation – Articles 231–247
Part IX. Financial Clauses – Articles 248–263
Part X. Economic Clauses – Articles 264–312
Part XI. Aerial Navigation – Articles 313–320
Part XIII. Labour – Articles 387–427
Part XIV. Guarantees – Articles 428–433
Part XV. Miscellaneous Provisions – Articles 434–440
Maps – Nos. 1–4
Protocol – Versailles, 28 June 1919
"Carthaginian Peace" can refer to two things: either [1] the peace imposed on Carthage by Rome in 146 BC, whereby the Romans systematically burned Carthage to the ground, or [2] the imposition of a very brutal 'peace' in general.
 
Modern use of the term is often extended to any peace settlement in which the peace terms are overly harsh and designed to perpetuate the inferiority of the loser. Thus many [the economist John Maynard Keynes among them] deemed the Treaty of Versailles to be a "Carthaginian Peace." The Morgenthau Plan, which was dropped in favor of the Marshall Plan "1948–1952", might be described as a "Carthaginian Peace", as it advocated the "pastoralization" "de-industrialization" of Germany following her 1945 defeat in World War II.
 
General Lucius D. Clay, deputy to general Dwight D. Eisenhower who in 1945 was military governor of the U.S. occupation Zone in Germany, and who would go on to replace Eisenhower as governor and as commander in chief, U.S. Forces in Europe, would later remark regarding the occupation directive guiding his and General Eisenhower's actions in occupied Germany: "there was no doubt that JCS 1067 contemplated the Carthaginian peace which dominated our operations in Germany during the early months of occupation." 
 
 
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Revised: 01/28/2013 – 08:00:27