“TheCeļotājs”
"Latvia" Former Soviet Union Military Bases
 
Vaiņode Former Soviet Union IRBM “Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile”
R-14U “SS-5 Mod 2 Skean” Deployment Base
“Chusovaya" type Silo Complex with 3 Underground Launch Silos. – 
Lat: N56.47321, Lon: E021.83453
Please Note: This Base is now destroyed, destruction started in June 2012 and Completed in October 2012
Brūveri, Embūtes parish, Latvia 
 
                   

                              23 August 2012 Remains of Vaiņode Former Soviet Union IRBM “Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile” R-14U “SS-5 Mod 2 Skean” Deployment Base during its destruction

               
 
SS-5 'Skean' Mod 1/Mod 2
Soviet Designation: R-14/R-14U
Operational: Entered Service in 1961/1964, 
Phased Out in 1984
 
Missile
GRAU Industrial Index: 8K65/8K65U
Designer: M.K. Yangel, OKB-586
Length: 24.39m
Diameter: 2.44m
Launch Weight: 86,300kg
Warhead: 1,500kg 1.0 MT Nuclear or 2,155kg 2.3 MT Nuclear
Propulsion: Single-stage Liquid-Propellant Rocket "RD-216"
Propellants: UDMH + AK-27
Guidance: Inertial
Max Range: 3,600-4,500km
CEP: 1,250m
 
Description
 
The development of the R-14 IRBM with UDMH [See Appendix V] as fuel was approved on 2 July 1958. Flight trials of the missile and its 8S224 launch complex began on 6 July 1960 at Kapustin Yar, and the system was accepted into service on 24 April 1961. The first R-14 regiment became operational on 1 January 1962 at Priekule. The development of the R-14U missile for both soft surface and Chusovaya complex silo launchers was authorized on 30 May 1960, and the first silo launch was conducted on 11 February 1962, again at Kapustin Yar. The last test of the series was made in October 1963, and the missile became operational during 1964. A mobile R-14 regiment consisted of three control units and four to five launchers. Peak deployment was 97 launchers between 1965 and 1969. Phase out began in 1971, and by 1984 the R-14 had been replaced by the Pioner "SS-20" missile. The last of the six remaining missiles was destroyed in accordance to the INF treaty on 9 August 1989.
 
The R-14U "Chusovaya" Missile had an Operational Range of 3,700km "2299 Miles". From Vaiņode Latvia IRBM launch pads [See Appendix XVI]. that were located at Lat: N56.47321, Lon: E021.83453 their reported targets were the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg, [See Appendix XVII
 
 
The propulsion system of the R-14 consisted of two identical blocks, each with a two-chamber engine, a turbo-pump unit, gas generator and automatic control system, as well as a four chambered control motor. For the first time a gas generator instead of hydrogen peroxide was used to power the hypergolic propellants. Flight control still relied on jet vanes. The R-14 was the first missile to use a gyro-stabilized inertial platform. It also had three solid-propellant retrorockets to prevent accidental collision of the booster with the separated nose cone. Reaction time was two hours in the soft site, and 15 minutes in the hard site configuration. The R-14 ground equipment included the 8U235 launch pad and 8U224 missile erector vehicle, the latter based on a MAZ-529V or MoAZ-546 wheeled chassis [See Appendix XV], and 8G113, 8G131 and 8G210 support systems. The R-14U Chusovaya silo launch complex comprised of a control center and three hot launchers, each 30 meters deep with an inner diameter of 4.0 to 4.5 meters. The Vertikal-4 sounding rocket and the Kosmos-3 "SL-8" space launch vehicle were later developed from the R-14. 
 
The 344th Missile Regiment, based in Vaiņode-Nikrace-Nigrande, had its official Winter Headquarters in Priekule, where there was a small garage for passenger trucks and duty shifts. Officers were mostly living in Priekule. Some veterans of the decommissioned R-5M "SS-3" regiment in Paplaka were also based there. The regiment was part of the 29th. Siauliai "Lithuania" RVSN Division, [See Appendix III] which also comprised the Jelgava and Dobele 
Regiments, the Sergeant school and Truck Repair sites in Jelgava City, the Head-quarter in Siauliai and the Command & Communications Center near Siauliai. Plunge Regiment “79” was decommissioned already on 18th  of June
1978. Tales were told that this regiment visited Cuba during the Anadyr mission in 1963 "in the West known as the Cuban Missile Crisis". Some Vaiņode veterans joked that discipline at Plunge was at a very low level, because officers’ morals were degraded after lots of contacts with Cuban prostitutes. Historically, the regiment started it's military duty at Nigrande, where the first four missiles were put into operation "surface launch pads" in 1962. The Vaiņode and Nigrande “Embute” sites were still under construction in 1962, because the silo system is much more complex than the surface launch pads. Officially, the regiment was named Artillery Ammunition Depots, and even in truck waybills the
route was called Depot 3 - 2 - 1 - Priekule. Vaiņode was depot 3 - third battalion. 
 
 
 
      
        RD-216 Rocket Engine
 
In 1958-61 RD-216, RD-218 and RD-219 Engines have been developed for the first and second stages of missile R-16 and one of variants of "Cosmos" LV, operated on nitric acid and UDMH. In 1961-1965 six-chamber engine RD-251,
consisting "as well as RD-218" from three two-chamber blocks, has been developed. This engine operated on nitric tetroxide and UDMH. RD-252 for the second stage had one block. As a result the problem of creation during short time of powerful multi-chamber propulsion units on storable components of propellant has been solved by application of block schemes of engines with the maximal unification of their elements. Engines of last development of this series promoted the maximal readiness of missiles on start which could be in the filled condition for many years.
 
Glushko [See Appendix XIII] Nitric acid/UDMH Rocket Engine. 1728kN. R-14, Kosmos 11K65 stage 1. Isp=291s. RD-216 was an assembly of 2 RD-215's with 2 combustion chambers and 2 turbines. Two sets of these were in turn used in the first stage of the R-14. First flight 1964.
 
Beginning with this engine Glushko cut the previous 3 to 5 years of development time for new engines to 2 years. Diameter is per chamber. 
 
Application: R-14, Kosmos 11K63 stage 1.
 
Characteristics
 
Chambers: 4. Thrust (sl): 1,469.200 kN (330,289 lbf). Thrust (sl): 149,796 kgf. Engine: 1,350 kg (2,970 lb). Chamber Pressure: 73.60 bar. Area Ratio: 18.8. Propellant Formulation: AK27I/UDMH. Thrust to Weight Ratio: 131.4. Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 2.5. 
 
AKA: 11D614.
Unfurled mass: 1,350kg "2,970 pounds".
Height: 2.20m "7.20 feet".
Diameter: 2.26m "7.41 feet".
Thrust: 1,728.00kN "388,469lbf".
Specific impulse: 291 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 248 s.
Burn time: 146 s.
First Launch: 1958-1960.
Number: 788 .
 
NPO ENERGOMASH
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Revised: 02/01/2013 – 11:48:07